The narratives about a nation's past taught in history education are a major focus of international research. 1 In many countries, textbooks are by far the most accessible sources of historical information for both pupils and teachers. The texts
Marc Kropman, Carla van Boxtel, and Jannet van Drie
The Ethics of Vulnerability and Agency in Research with Girls in the Sex Trade
Alexandra Ricard-Guay and Myriam Denov
. While it is important to acknowledge the abuses committed against minors in the sex trade, this one-dimensional narrative may come into opposition with how the girls themselves perceive their experiences, and may actually hinder an understanding of the
Engaging and Educating Adolescents in History Museums in Europe
History museums in Europe are transnationalizing their narratives. In contemporary historical sections they also increasingly include references to European integration and the present-day European Union. This "transnational turn" within a predominately European narrative frame meets the "educational turn." Museums attempt to transform themselves into more interactive spaces of communication. The meeting of these "turns" creates particular challenges of engaging and educating adolescents. I argue that in responding to these challenges, history museums in Europe so far use three main strategies: personalizing history, simulating real life decision-making situations, and encouraging participative narrating of the adolescents' own (transnational) experiences.
Western rescue narrative in which a white mutant, Wolverine, saves her ( Dar 2008 ). In contrast to Dust, Kamala Khan is a fashionable 16-year-old Pakistani-American girl who combats crime, racism, and Islamophobia in Jersey City, New Jersey. Deploying her
appealing claim that the “vast majority” of narrative films present their stories by raising and then answering questions about their story world (2008a, 133). According to this theory, the opening scene of Citizen Kane (Orson Welles, 1941), for instance
Héctor J. Pérez
My aim in this article is to contribute to the existing literature on the plot twist in screen fictions. The plot twist is a narrative device designed to turn the reception of a narration into an experience dominated by surprise, influencing how
James E. Cutting, Catalina Iricinschi, and Kaitlin L. Brunick
This article presents a new method to create maps that chart changes across a cinematic narrative. These are unlike narrative spaces previously discussed in the literature—they are abstract, holistic, dynamic representations based on objective criteria. The analysis considers three films (All About Eve, Inception, and MASH) by counting the co-occurrences of main characters within scenes, and 12 Angry Men by counting their co-occurrences within shots. The technique used combines the statistical methods of correlation, multidimensional scaling, and Procrustes analysis. It then plots the trajectories of characters across these spaces in All About Eve and Inception, regions for characters in Inception and MASH, and compares the physical arrangement of jurors with their dramatic roles in 12 Angry Men. These maps depict the changing structures in the visual narrative. Finally, through consideration of statistical learning, the article explores the plausibility that these maps mimic relations in the minds of film viewers.
James J. Fiumara
Nitzan Ben Shaul, Cinema of Choice: Optional Thinking and Narrative Movies
Katalin Bálint and Ed S. Tan
Narrative absorption is a spontaneous temporary change in the state of consciousness due to an exceptionally intense awareness of a fictional narrative. This article investigates the experiential level of narrative absorption, namely what it is like to be absorbed in a cinematic or printed narrative. Following a cognitive linguistic approach the article assumes that in order to establish understanding of the experiential level of narrative absorption it is necessary to examine how people express their experience. The article proposes that the concept of image schema is a fruitful way to represent the content of viewers' and readers' consciousness so as to identify relevant mental schemata of absorbed narrative experiences. To generate rich descriptions of narrative absorption an interview study was conducted. The interviews qualitatively employing the image schemas as the system of the thematic analysis were examined for this research. The Centre-Periphery, Container, and the Source-Path-Goal schemas provide deeper insight into the nature and structure of recurring embodied patterns of absorption with fictional narratives.
This article examines how middle school history textbooks published between 1951 and 1995 explain the origins of the Japanese as an ethnic group (minzoku). The analysis shows that despite the relatively long period from which the sample of textbooks was taken, these texts continue to emphasize two categories of Japanese identity: a biologically heterogeneous people through prehistoric immigration and a unified language. Building on the latter theme, the textbooks continued to treat the innovation of the kana as a quintessential development underlying the Japanese cultural achievement. The analysis reveals that the narrative tone shifted from being emotive in the early 1950s texts to somewhat muted in later decades.