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Enis Sulstarova

light. Islam reappears in the lessons that deal with the rise of the Ottoman state and its invasions of the Balkans. A textbook published in 1992 states that in the invaded countries the Turks spread Islam by force and oppressed the native cultures, a

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“Presentism” Versus “Path Dependence”?

Reflections on the Second World War in Russian Textbooks of the 1990s

Serguey Ehrlich

delay the opening of the western front, but also in their plans to invade the Balkans “in order to keep the Red Army out of Austria, Romania and possibly even Hungary,” 69 or in other words, “to bar the Red Army from Europe.” 70 In this interpretation

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Migration and Migrants between the Favorable and the Problematic

A Discourse Analysis of Secondary School Turkish History Textbooks from 1966 to 2018

Önder Cetin

to present another episode of national history, namely the waves of emigration from the Balkans and Caucasia following military defeats in the late Ottoman era. As part of the predication strategy, the authors use evaluative attributions to explain