Search Results

You are looking at 91 - 100 of 870 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Rainer Baumann

When German foreign policy is being described, a reference to multilateralism

is rarely ever omitted. Together with Westbindung, restraint

in using military force, and a trading-state orientation, Germany’s

preference for multilateral settings is recognized as one of the central

elements of its foreign policy. In recent years, a number of studies

have shown that, in contrast to realist expectations from the early

1990s, the more powerful unified Germany has continued to embrace

this multilateralism. This applies to Germany’s willingness to bind

itself to NATO and other European and Euro-Atlantic security institutions,

1 to Germany’s policy within and vis-à-vis the EU,2 and to its

foreign policy on a global scale.

Restricted access

“Okay, I am going to try this now”

An Interview with Caryl Phillips about The Atlantic Sounds and The European Tribe

Nicklas Hållén and Caryl Phillips

Born on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts, Caryl Phillips grew up in the United Kingdom. For many years he has been living in the United States and currently teaches at Yale University. In addition to being an award-winning novelist, he is the author of two travelogues. In The European Tribe (1987), Phillips travels from Morocco, through Continental Europe, to Soviet Moscow. More than a report from a certain place and time, his travelogue is an indictment of the provincialism of Eurocentric discourses of whiteness in European societies. It describes a journey where Shakespeare, Anne Frank, and James Baldwin offer guidance through a landscape of racial tribalism and exclusion. The Atlantic Sound (2000) is a travel narrative that comprises a series of journeys across the Atlantic sphere, connecting places and stories that are central in the history of the transatlantic slave trade. It begins with Phillips repeating his family’s journey from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom aboard a banana boat. After an interlude of historical fiction that recreates the experiences of John Ocansey, a late nineteenth-century West African traveler in Liverpool, Phillips visits this monumental hub in the transatlantic slave trade and then goes to Ghana to participate in Panafest, a Pan-African festival held at a former slave fort. The next part of the book sees Phillips at another apex of the Atlantic triangle—Charleston, South Carolina. The book ends in the Negev desert where he visits a community of African-American settlers claiming Israeli ancestry.

Restricted access

Analyzing African Formations

Multi-national Corporations, Non-capitalist Relations, and 'Mothers of the Community'

Caroline Ifeka

The West gazes hard at the continent it is has exploited for so long. Reflecting Western discourses of Africa as that ‘dark other’, texts use epithets immersed in preconceptions of Africa’s inequality: differences of race and religion, with Western ‘civilization’ standing for, and justifying, unequal power relations of apparent antiquity. Nineteenth-century Royal Geographical Society audiences, enthusiastic supporters of Britain’s growing empire and overseas Christian missions, learned from distinguished travelers about ‘the slave trade’, ‘ju-ju’, ‘paganism and devil worship’, ‘Mecca’, ‘the import-export trade’, ‘white traders’, and ‘black middlemen’. Favorite twentieth-century discourses included ‘black nationalism’, ‘weak states’ and ‘African indebtedness’, ‘corrupt government’, ‘ruthless multi-national oil companies’, ‘environmental pollution’, and ‘poverty’. Twenty-first-century researchers write of ‘endemic violence’ coalescing around inter-state international borders or intra-state ethnic boundaries; ethnic militants fight for ‘ethnic sovereignties’, jostling to wrest from the nation-state customary rights of ownership and control over ‘our god-given’ oil, clashing with giant multi-national corporations that lease from nation-state governments—not oil-producing communities claiming customary ownership—vast blocks of swamp, desert, and sea under which lies ‘black gold’ (Ifeka 2000: 452; cf. Hertz 2001: 194ff.).

Full access

Lucio Baccaro and Marco Simoni

After months of intense debate, the referendum on Article 18 of the

Workers’ Statute was held on 15–16 June 2003. The aim of the referendum

was to extend to all workers, independent of the size of the

firm, so-called real protection, that is, the right to reinstatement in case

of unjustified dismissal.1 The result was clear once the polls were

closed and even before the votes were counted. Only 25.7 percent of

eligible voters took part, a significant amount less than the required 50

percent quorum. It meant that the 10 million votes (87.4 percent of voters)

in favor of extending Article 18 had no legislative impact.2 The fact

that the vote was not validated could lead to the conclusion that the

event was insignificant. However, it provides an opportunity to look at

the dynamics between trade unions and politics in recent years, especially

with respect to the debates over labor market flexibility and legislative

proposals of the center-right government. Moreover, the

referendum contributed both to the accentuation of divisions between

the major trade union confederations (CGIL, CISL, and UIL) during the

campaign and then to their attenuation following the vote. Finally, the

referendum, perhaps, brought to a conclusion a two-year struggle for

the representation of labor. It strengthened the traditional ruling group

of the Ulivo and Communist Refoundation while weakening that of

Sergio Cofferati, the spiritual leader of the wider left extending from

the Margherita to the No Global and girotondi movements.

Open access

Social Movements and Social Policies

Political Challenges under Austerity in the UK

Gregory White

The economic crisis of 2007/2008 presented a challenge to the welfare state in the UK, and, more widely, across Europe. It also presented a challenge to many citizens, who were on the receiving end of the austerity agenda, and subsequent tightening of welfare spending. If nothing else, the financial crisis demonstrated the hegemony of economic theories prominent in neoliberal capitalism. As many academics and commentators have identified, however, the current period of instability is indicative of a systemic crisis. In addition to this analysis, the crisis also exposed the intricate and opaque links between western governments and the financial sector. During and after the crisis an eruption of activity in civil society galvanized many that had been directly affected by either the crisis itself—through loss of employment—or by the subsequent austerity measures imposed. This article aims to examine the current crisis affecting the welfare state in the UK, and social policy more broadly, and, begins to suggest how social movements are seeking to challenge the dominant discourses surrounding austerity politics. The article suggests some reasons as to why traditional forms of resistance and organization—such as the mobilizations of the trade union movement—have largely been unsuccessful in challenging such narratives. The article concludes by considering the shift from trade unionism in the UK to post-crisis social movements, and where an anti-austerity movement more broadly might develop further in pursuit of defending the principles of social welfare, and, ultimately, the welfare state.

Restricted access

Unintended Consequences

Climate Change Policy in a Globalizing World

Yda Schreuder

The cap-and-trade system introduced by the European Union (EU) in order to comply with carbon emissions reduction targets under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol (1997) has in some instances led to the opposite outcome of the one intended. In fact, the ambitious energy and climate change policy adopted by the EU-known as the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)-has led to carbon leakage and in some instances to relocation or a shi in production of energy-intensive manufacturing to parts of the world where carbon reduction commitments are not in effect. EU business organizations state that corporate strategies are now directed toward expanding production overseas and reducing manufacturing capacity in the Union due to its carbon constraints. As the EU has been “going-it-alone“ with mixed success in terms of complying with the Kyoto Protocol's binding emissions reduction targets, the net outcome of the ETS market-based climate change policy is more rather than less global CO2 emissions.

Restricted access

Is Integration a Zero-Sum Game?

Negotiating Space for Ethnic Minorities in Europe

Amanda Garrett

Jennifer Fredette, Constructing Muslims in France: Discourse, Public Identity, and the Politics of Citizenship (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2014).

Maxwell Rahsaan, Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

This article reviews two books that address the inherently complicated puzzle of ethnic minority accommodation in Europe. These works recognize the pressing need to understand the parameters within which minority populations and states build relationships and delineate identities, and thus the process of minority inclusion. In doing so they contribute to interdisciplinary scholarship devoted to examining how host societies manage the real and perceived threats to social, economic, and political cohesion. But questions remain. How should we define the concept of successful integration and how must we measure it? What are the factors driving successful versus failed integration? How do these factors change over time and across national contexts?

Restricted access

Michael Jackson and Damian Grace

This article analyses the way in which the life and works of Niccolò Machiavelli are misunderstood and misconstrued by writers and scholars, in the fields of management, personality research and primate studies. While adjectives like 'Machiavellian' and nouns like 'Machiavellianism' have become part of the vernacular, these scholarly usages trade on, perpetuate and reinforce stereotypes of Machiavelli in (1) a host of books and articles in management, (2) an instrument to assess personality that has been administered to thousands of subjects around the world, and (3) authoritative studies of primate behaviours from the Netherlands to Japan. The distorted Machiavelli depicted in these fields is but a shadow of the deft, insightful and elusive Machiavelli of The Prince, The Discourses, Mandragola, The Art of War, The Florentine Histories and more. We suggest that colleagues should recognise and rebut these shadowy Machiavellis in teaching, scholarship and research. If specialists in history and political science ignore them, they will continue to obscure the reality.

Restricted access

The uninvited guest

Soviet Russia, the Far Eastern Republic and the Washington Conference, November 1921 to February 1922

Paul Dukes and Cathryn Brennan

This article seeks partly to redress the neglect of international relations, especially concerning the Far East, in recent Western writing on Soviet Russia. It concentrates on the sequel to the Paris Peace Conference, the Washington Conference of 1921-2, suggesting that Soviet Russia played the role of 'Banquo's ghost' at both meetings. Making use for the most part of documents from the US National Archive, the article concentrates on the problem of bringing the Japanese intervention to an end, with special reference to the use made for this purpose by the Soviet government of the Far Eastern Republic or DVR. The DVR enjoyed considerable success as a 'democratic' buffer state, while its Special Trade Delegation acted as unofficial representative for Soviet Russia at the Washington Conference. As the Japanese intervention came to an end, the DVR was dissolved.

Free access

Mario Caciagli and Alan S. Zuckerman

The Jubilee of the Catholic Church is the most frequently mentioned

event in the chronology that precedes this introduction to

the sixteenth edition of Politics in Italy. It could not have been otherwise,

in light of its impact on Italian public life and visibility in

the mass media throughout the year 2000. The “first planetary and

media jubilee,” as Gianfranco Brunelli terms it in his contribution

to this volume, stands at the center of this book’s section on Italian

society. Consider only some of the salient events that marked

this celebration: May Day, which the trade unions left nearly

entirely for the Pope to celebrate; the Gay Pride demonstration and

the attendant protests from the Vatican; Haider’s visit; the arrival of

tens of millions of pilgrims to the Eternal City, the impressive

amount of public works brought to completion in Rome, and the

added visibility of Rome’s mayor Francesco Rutelli. In the imagination

of most Italians, the year 2000 will remain the Jubilee year.