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Muthanga

A Spark of Hope

K. Ravi Raman

On 19 February 2003, the armed police of the currently rightwing government of the Indian state of Kerala descended on over one thousand adivasi1 families— men, women and children—who had peacefully settled on the fringes of the Muthanga range of the Wayanad Wild Life Sanctuary, driving them out in a most brutal fashion and even killing one of those women who resisted. The state had failed to give any prior warning of the police action, nor was any attempt made toward a mediated negotiation. The police unleashed a reign of terror in the region; physical molestation of women was also reported, the latter having been substantiated by the National Women’s Commission. Those who fell into the hands of the police were brutally manhandled en route to the police station; in a bizarre innovation, the activists were forced to beat one another. The movement had been launched by the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha—the Grand Assembly of Indigenous People—led by a tribal woman, C. K. Janu. The demands of the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha for land, food, shelter, the enforcement of constitutional provisions, reparation for losses incurred by the intervention of foreign companies in their environment, etc., are paralleled in indigenous movements elsewhere, e.g., the Zapatistas in Mexico (see Collier 1994; Gledhill 1997; Hellman 2000; Weinberg 2000; Womack 1999). However, unlike other indigenous movements, the situation in Kerala has received little world attention.

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Les repas des Marocains

Comparaison entre Casablanca et des communes rurales du Souss (enquête de 2013)

Laurence Tibère, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Nicolas Bricas, Driss Boumeggouti, and Claude Fischler

Abstract: This article provides an overview of Moroccan people’s eating habits, in a context of urbanisation and, more broadly, of ongoing changes in lifestyles and social aspirations. The analysis is mainly based on data from a quantitative survey conducted between 2012 and 2013. It focuses on the differences and commonalities between the meals of Casablanca residents and those of the inhabitants of rural areas in the Souss region. The article points out the existence of differentiated situations between the two contexts, particularly with regard to the number of meals or food sociability. It also shows the importance of certain habits, both in the city and in rural villages, such as the social valuation of certain dishes or products, or the importance of commensality.

Résumé : Cet article propose un panorama des habitudes des Marocains relatives aux repas, dans un contexte d’urbanisation et, plus largement, de mutations en cours dans les modes de vie et les aspirations sociales. L’analyse se fonde principalement sur les données d’une enquête quantitative menée entre 2012 et 2013. Elle porte sur les différences et les points de convergence entre les repas des Casablancais et ceux des habitants de communes rurales du Souss. L’article pointe l’existence de situations différenciées entre les deux contextes, s’agissant en particulier du nombre des repas ou encore des sociabilités alimentaires. Il montre aussi la prégnance, en ville comme dans les villages ruraux, de certaines habitudes, telle que la valorisation de certains plats ou produits, ou l’importance de la commensalité.

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India travels and transitioning Luxembourg

Appropriate thresholds and scales of change

Katy Fox

This is a new year’s letter written by the founder of the Centre for Ecological Learning Luxembourg (CELL) to the executive board on the occasion of a journey to India. CELL is an independent, volunteer-led grassroots nonprofit organization founded in 2010 and based in Beckerich. CELL’s scope of action is the Greater Region of Luxembourg, hence its mode of operating through decentralized action groups in order to establish and maintain community gardens, food co-ops, and other social-ecological projects in different parts of Luxembourg. CELL also develops and organizes various courses, provides consultancy services for ecological living, participates in relevant civil society campaigns, and does some practical research on low-impact living. The broad objective of CELL is to provide an experimental space for thinking, researching, disseminating, and practicing lifestyles with a low impact on the environment, and learning the skills for creating resilient post-carbon communities. CELL is inspired by the work of the permaculture and Transition Towns social movements in its aims to relocalize culture and economy and, in that creative process, improve resilience to the consequences of peak oil and climate change.

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The Ant and the Grasshopper

Rationalising Exclusion and Inequality in the Post-apartheid City

Richard Ballard

As with many other genres of storytelling, fables are as much about the socialisation of political values as they are about the amusement of children. Although their timeless appearance presents their truths as absolute, the meanings of fables change as they are reinterpreted through time by particular ideologies. Thus we find that The Ant and the Grasshopper, a children’s favourite about the need for hard work and careful saving, has recently been commandeered by conservative adults who are searching for ever more coded ways of communicating in today’s anti-racist contexts. This story is attributed to Æsop, a mythical sixth century B.C. slave and storyteller (Adrados 1999). During the renaissance, Europe’s fascination with antiquity prompted renewed interest in Æsop’s fables as vehicles of commentary on the politics of the time (Hanazaki 1993-1994 & Patterson 1991). Their popularity accelerated with the industrial revolution since some of the fables, such as The Tortoise and the Hare and The Ant and the Grasshopper, were particularly suited to the socialisation of selfrestraint and a strong work ethic. The Ant and the Grasshopper tells the story of the ant that worked hard collecting food during summer, while the carefree grasshopper did not. During winter, the ant survived while the grasshopper starved. This story conveyed to children that the threat of lean times was ever present but that hard work would stave off starvation.

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Introduction

Seeds—Grown, governed, and contested, or the ontic in political anthropology

Birgit Müller

Seeds are simultaneously a meaningful part of the daily life of many people involved in agriculture and instruments for national and international policy making. This thematic section explores the sensorial connections between people and plants, the relationships of power that impact and frame them, and the reflections and contestations that they are a part of. In the midst of Western societies and among scientists and farmers, different ontologies and different perceptions of being and coevolving with others in the world coexist, as we will show by looking at human-seed relationships. Local and global legacies create powerful differences between seeds, while various forms of international governance simultaneously push seeds toward homogenization and agriculture toward industrialization while claiming to preserve diversity. Intellectual property rights over seeds and seed regulations have become powerful tools of multinational seed corporations for appropriating large parts of farmers' incomes and controlling the food chain, while it is the sensorial and emotional connections between humans and plants that provide the drive to resist them.

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L’estomac, le chemin du coeur et la transformation du monde

Femmes, nourriture, relations et parenté pratiques en Turquie

Marie Helene Sauner-Leroy

Abstract: Based on a survey carried out with middle-class, married, practicing and non-practicing Muslim women living in Istanbul, this work is focused on female relational networks, their link to cooking and gender relations. The article argues that the disruptions, modifications and accommodations put in place by women and men in their management of everyday life are reflected through daily food practices. The study emphasises the pivotal role of older women in the changes in male/female relationships. The disruptions do not seem to be based on one’s positional relation to religion, but rather on one’s belonging to age, class, or social status.

Résumé : Fondé sur une enquête réalisée avec des femmes de la classe moyenne, mariées, musulmanes pratiquantes et non-pratiquantes et résidant à Istanbul, ce travail s’est intéressé aux réseaux relationnels féminins, à leur lien au culinaire et aux relations de genre. Par le biais des pratiques alimentaires sont ainsi abordés les ruptures, les évolutions et accommodements mis en place par les femmes et les hommes dans leur gestion du quotidien. L’article insiste sur le rôle pivot des aînées dans les changements des rapports homme / femme. Les fractures ne semblent pas fondées sur le positionnement vis-à-vis de la religion, mais bien plutôt sur l’appartenance à une classe d’âge, ou à une classe sociale.

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Jon Bialecki, Erica Weiss, Hillary Kaell, Christopher Hewlett, Sibyl Macfarlane, Grit Wesser, Emma Gobin, James S. Bielo, Sindre Bangstad, and Thorgeir Kolshus

SHULTS, F. LeRon, Iconoclastic Theology: Gilles Deleuze and the Secretion of Atheism, 242 pp., illustrations, index. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Hardback, $104. ISBN 9780748684137.

BARBER, Daniel Colucciello, Deleuze and the Naming of God: Post-secularism and the Future of Immanence, 232 pp., index. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Hardback, $113. ISBN 9780748686360.

DROEBER, Julia, The Dynamics of Coexistence in the Middle East: Negotiating Boundaries Between Christians, Muslims, Jews and Samaritans in Palestine, 256 pp., notes, bibliography, index. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013. Hardback, £58.00. ISBN 9781780765273.

ENGELKE, Matthew, God’s Agents: Biblical Publicity in Contemporary England, 320 pp., notes, references, index. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. Paperback, $34.95, £24.95. ISBN 9780520280472.

FAUSTO, Carlos, Warfare and Shamanism in Amazonia, 368 pp., illustrations, maps, tables, references, annex, index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Hardback, £62. ISBN 9781107020061.

HARVEY, Graham, Food, Sex and Strangers: Understanding Religion as Everyday Life, 244 pp. Durham: Acumen, 2013. Paperback, $23. ISBN 9781844656936.

NYNÄS, Peter, and Andrew Kam-Tuck YIP, eds., Religion, Gender and Sexuality in Everyday Life, 173 pp., index. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012. Hardback, £45. ISBN 9781409445838.

PALMIÉ, Stephan, The Cooking of History: How Not to Study Afro-Cuban Religion, 360 pp., notes, references, index. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Cloth, $85. ISBN 9780226019420.

SEALES, Chad E., The Secular Spectacle: Performing Religion in a Southern Town, 238 pp., illustrations, notes, index. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. Paperback, $24.95. ISBN 9780199860289.

SELBY, Jennifer A., Questioning French Secularism: Gender Politics and Islam in a Parisian Suburb, 241 pp., illustrations, appendix, notes, bibliography, index. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Hardcover, $73. ISBN 9780230121010.

TOMLINSON, Matt, and Debra MCDOUGALL, eds., Christian Politics in Oceania, 260 pp., illustrations, maps, bibliography, index. New York: Berghahn Books, 2013. Hardback, $90. ISBN 9780857457462.

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Extractive Conservation

Peasant Agroecological Systems as New Frontiers of Exploitation?

Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert and Peter Clausing

in a top-down governance regime and provokes recurrent conflicts of access to natural resources ( Gudynas 2009 ; Peluso and Lund 2011 ). With regard to conservation and extraction, this piece focuses on the biodiversity-food nexus in which

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Avoiding Poison

Congolese Refugees Seeking Cosmological Continuity in Urban Asylum

Georgina Ramsay

the cyclic dialectic of blockage and flow, as symbolized by the growth and harvest cycles of crops and plant foods, metabolic systems, biological reproduction, and the turning of days and seasons ( Devisch 1993 ; Taylor 1992 ). Despite a prevalent

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Charlotte Prové, Denise Kemper, and Salma Loudiyi

Over recent decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of urban agriculture initiatives (UAIs) across the Western world. The understanding of urban agriculture (UA) has shifted from urban food production practices in and around cities for