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Margaret Cohen

At the beginning of the twentieth century, due to the spread of helmet diving beyond engineering communities, people started to attend to the remarkable qualities of underwater optics, differing radically from seeing through air. With the revelation of this unfamiliar planetary environment to a broader public, creators across the arts took inspiration from underwater optics to structure fantasy spaces of dream, hallucination, and marvel. To show the properties of underwater optics inspiring these fantasy spaces, this article analyzes undersea paintings by Walter “Zarh” Pritchard, reputedly the first artist to have painted en pleine mer. It then turns to aquatically-inspired works of surrealism, the movement offering the most famous appropriation of underwater optics for the arts, focusing notably on André Breton's L'Amour fou and Jean Vigo's L'Atalante.

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“The Strange Happiness of Being Abroad”

Dorothy Richardson's Oberland

Mhairi Pooler

Oberland has typically been viewed as an odd interlude in Dorothy Richardson's novel sequence Pilgrimage. Depicting a fortnight spent in the Swiss Alps, it focuses on the experience and influence of travel and new surroundings, celebrating a state of intense wonder—“the strange happiness of being abroad.” This article argues that reading Oberland within the tradition of travel writing rather than the novel improves our understanding of the volume's distinctiveness as well as themes central to the whole of Pilgrimage—in particular those of wonder and “privileged sight,” faculties that, it is suggested, are essential to the artistic temperament. Concerned less with the protagonist's inner life and more with her immediate experience of place, Oberland may be distinct from the rest of Pilgrimage, but not from modernist travel narratives. This article considers the implications of such genre distinctions for Richardson's text and what it means for her protagonist Miriam's development toward artisthood.

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Melissa Feinberg

Maria Bucur, Gendering Modernism: A Historical Reappraisal of the Canon , London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017, xi +149 pp., $24.95 (paperback), ISBN: 978-1-350-0265-4. Maria Bucur, The Century of Women: How Women Have Transformed the World

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Paul Betts

Eric Michaud, Un Art de L’Éternité: L’image et le temps du national-socialisme (Paris: Gallimard, 1996).

Omer Bartov, Murder in Our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing and Representation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Michael Wildt, Vom kleinen Wohlstand: Eine Konsumgeschichte der fünfziger Jahre (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1996).

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Putting the Culture into Bioculturalism

A Naturalized Aesthetics and the Challenge of Modernism

Dominic Topp

Alfred Hitchcock and Otto Preminger with the Soviet montage films of Sergei Eisenstein and Alexander Dovzhenko and the modernism of Robert Bresson, Luis Buñuel, and Raúl Ruiz, and this “comparative approach” ( Smith 2017: 9 ) has continued in his

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Tru Leverette and Barbara Mennel

Zélie Asava. Mixed Race Cinemas: Multiracial Dynamics in America and France (New York Bloomsbury, 2017). 216 pp., ISBN: 1501312456 (paperback: $35.96)

Elizabeth Otto and Patrick Rössler, eds. Bauhaus Bodies: Gender, Sexuality, and Body Culture in Modernism’s Legendary Art School (New York: Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019). xl + 345 pp., ISBN: 9781501344787 (hardback, $110), (paperback, $29.95)

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The Ill-Equipped Modernist

Historicizing Édouard Dujardin’s Les Lauriers Sont Coupés

Kelly J. Maynard

in its own right, analyzing its interiority as an innovative product of overlapping aesthetic milieus symptomatic of the French fin de siècle, including symbolism, Wagnerism, modernism, and subjectivism. 2 In this article, I explore Les Lauriers

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Sacred Unions

Religion and Reconciliation in French Society, 1919-1945

Jessica Wardhaugh

Stephen Schloesser, Jazz Age Catholicism: Mystic Modernism in Postwar Paris, 1919-1933 (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press, 2005).

Geoffrey Adams, Political Ecumenism: Catholics, Jews, and Protestants in de Gaulle’s Free France, 1940-1944 (Montreal and Kingston, London, Ithaca: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006).

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Return to the Organic

Onions, Artichokes and 'The Debate' on the Nation and Modernity

Laurence Piper

Nationalism and Modernism, by Anthony D. Smith. London & New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN: 0415063418.

Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction, by Umut Özkrimili. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. ISBN: 0333777123.

Understanding Nationalism, edited by Montserrat Guibernau and John Hutchinson. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN: 0745624022.

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Neo-liberalism

Dominant but dead

Neil Smith

Some years ago Jürgen Habermas (1991) diagnosed modernism as dominant but dead. Neo- liberalism may still be in its youth, having come to fruition only after the 1970s, but it seems reasonable to conclude that neo-liberalism too is “dominant but dead.” The ferment of new ideas, however much they were simultaneously recycled axia from the earlier liberal tradition, reached its peak in the 1980s.