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Introduction

Literature of the Thirties – Region and Genre

Mary Joannou

The second special issue on the literature of the thirties follows on from an earlier edition of Critical Survey which brought together new critical writings on the period (volume 10, number 3, 1988). The first four essays selected are responses to regionalism and identity and the last two to the issues raised by the relationships of gender and generic fiction. Simon Featherstone analyses how two popular artistes, Gracie Fields (the ‘mill girl’) and Max Miller (‘the cheeky chappie’) achieved success in an entertainment industry that was changing rapidly in response to technological and cultural pressures. Their stardom depended on the dialogues between regional and national identities as part of a national cultural dynamic during a decade in which mass popular forms reconstituted the older regional and local traditions of dialogue and performance. Steven Matthews sees Auden’s injunction to ‘Consider this and in our time’ as a ‘clarion call to a particular, post-The Waste Land, form of modernity’. Focusing on Scottish and Irish writers (Louis MacNeice, Sorley Maclean, Grassic Gibbon et al.) Matthews argues that the temporality of some thirties’ writing aligns it closely with the emergent nationalisms familiar in recent postcolonial theory.

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Smita Yadav

Sites of pilgrimage and heritage tourism are often sites of social inequality and volatility that are impaired by hostilities between historical, ethnic, and competing religious discourses of morality, personhood, and culture, as well as between imaginaries of nationalism and citizenship. Often these pilgrim sites are much older in national and global history than the actual sovereign nation-state in which they are located. Pertinent issues to do with finance—such as regimes of taxation, livelihoods, and the wealth of regional and national economies—underscore these sites of worship. The articles in this special issue engage with prolix travel arrangement, accommodation, and other aspects of heritage tourism in order to understand how intangible aspects of such tourism proceed. But they also relate back to when and how these modern infrastructures transformed the pilgrimage and explore what the emerging discourses and practices were that gave newer meanings to neoliberal pilgrimages. The different case studies presented in this issue analyze the impact of these journeys on the pilgrims’ own subjectivities—especially with regard to the holy sites being situated in their imaginations of historical continuity and discontinuity and with regard to their transformative experiences of worship—using both modern and traditional infrastructures.

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Return to the Organic

Onions, Artichokes and 'The Debate' on the Nation and Modernity

Laurence Piper

Nationalism and Modernism, by Anthony D. Smith. London & New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN: 0415063418.

Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction, by Umut Özkrimili. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. ISBN: 0333777123.

Understanding Nationalism, edited by Montserrat Guibernau and John Hutchinson. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN: 0745624022.

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“We Are a Traveling People”

Tourism, Travel Journalism, and the Construction of a Modern National Identity in Sweden

Emilia Ljungberg

1930s put questions of nationalism and national identity on the agenda. In order to go through the whole newspaper rather than a specific category of material, I chose two years to represent the 1930s. The newspaper was first published in 1864 and is

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Jackie Clarke, Melanie Kay Smith, Margret Jäger, Anne O’Connor, and Robert Shepherd

modern phenomenon of democratized travel and the emergence of a new constituency of tourists that results in evolving strategies for Irish travel. Anne O’Connor National University of Ireland, Galway Leanne White , ed., Commercial Nationalism and Tourism

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Touring the Regions

(Dis) Uniting the Kingdom on Holiday

Hazel Andrews

to the past underpinning ideas of English nationalism. Indeed, he argues that “the dominant understanding of the past in England is a vision of history where the notion of ‘greatness’ has been torpedoed by perceptions of ‘decline’ in the post

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Bilal Tawfiq Hamamra

contemporary Palestine with respect to the discourse of sacrifice. The emphasis within Lady Lumley’s Iphigenia on sacrifice interacts with contemporary Palestine, where nationalism and religion have motivated Palestinian women to become suicide bombers

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Safi Mahmoud Mahfouz

Cleopatra , as exemplary in inciting the common people’s political awakening and patriotic nationalism. Shawqi wrote the play in response to the 1919 Egyptian Revolution against the British mandate over Egypt and Sudan. Unlike Shakespeare’s Cleopatra

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Elizabeth Hoyt and Gašper Jakovac

respective societies’ sense of themselves; indeed, often pressed into the service of an explicit and off-putting nationalism (p. 4). This collection does not aim to produce a comprehensive history of Shakespeare during the Second World War, however, or its

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Angel in the House, Devil in the City

Explorations of Gender in Dracula and Penny Dreadful

Lauren Rocha

’s nationalism as well as the masculinity of the male characters by making them subservient to a foreign vampire master. The last lines of the novel highlight the significance of the men’s victory over Dracula, with Van Helsing saying that ‘[Mina and Jonathan