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Christopher Hill, Anna Bara, David Dettmann, Joseph Livesey, and Falk Huettmann

applies, particularly as regards entry, duration of stay, and employment. In illustrating the author’s conclusions, the chapter relies on a mix of much earlier research publications and legislation, and more emphasis could have been placed on the fact that

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The Socio-Demographic Situation in the Republic of Tuva

Conditions of Social Transformation, 1990s–early 2000s

Zoya Dorzhu

Translator : Jenanne Ferguson

: an attempt to smooth out aggravated social problems. In particular, the emergence of unemployment resulted in the creation of a special legal framework to mitigate its consequences. In 1991, the law “On employment in the Russian Federation” (Article

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Family on the Edge

Neblagopoluchnaia Family and the State in Yakutsk and Magadan, Russian Federation

Lena Sidorova and Elena Khlinovskaya Rockhill

between classes. It was thought that decisions and possibilities of moving upward to decent life depended on an individual, rather than on his or her economic, class, or other conditions. With free education, guaranteed income, and mandatory employment

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“Save the Men!”

Demographic Decline and the Public Response in the Late Soviet Period

Tricia Starks

dangerous on their face, but the high accident numbers hit when men were just entering and learning these occupations and therefore more likely to make a deadly mistake. While men were endangered by their employment, Zharko argues that forcing men to change

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Chaos in Siberia

New Scholarship on Exile in the Late Russian Empire

Jeffrey S. Hardy

work where. In particular, some tried to accommodate employment specialties, even if it meant allowing exiles to move to large towns, where strict quotas for exiles were supposed to be maintained, while others preferred to let skilled exiles languish in

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Natalya Khokholova

reindeer boots (“ unty ”) and speaking Sakha. Even now, wearing reindeer boots inside offices or in other formal spaces of employment or social engagement is considered to be demonstrating disrespect to others or confirming that wearing unty makes one a

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Land, Nation and Tourist

Moral Reckoning in Post-GFC Iceland

Mary Hawkins and Helena Onnudottir

high and employment prospects not bright. She is undecided as to the benefits that may accrue to Iceland were it to join the European Union: she sometimes thinks that Iceland’s political structures are under developed and Iceland needs to ‘grow up’, 4

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Konstantin Klokov

economy; not for reindeer herding, but for provisioning employment in indigenous settlements. Fence construction and repair work is paid for by state programs. This work has become an important source of money for the indigenous population, as reindeer

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Geographical Imagination, Anthropology, and Political Exiles

Photographers of Siberia in Late Imperial Russia

Tatiana Saburova

were so limited for professional employment and income, photography provided an attractive opportunity. and most political exiles had an education adequate to allow them to master the requisite skills. Formally speaking, photography was also off

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Alison K. Smith

, laws also gave individuals unusual opportunities to change their social status ( soslovie ). This was, in a way, what lay behind the laws allowing fugitives who found gainful employment and a new trade at a Siberian factory to stay there—in order to