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Benjamin C. Fortna

, “Modernization from Empire to Republic and Education in the Process of Nationalism,” in Ottoman Past and Today’s Turkey , ed. Kemal Karpat (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 47–132. 4 Fortna, Imperial Classroom , 166–167. 5 For a synoptic appraisal of the post

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Spatial Relations and the Struggle for Space

Friedrich Ratzel’s Impact on German Education from the Wilhelmine Empire to the Third Reich

Troy Paddock

Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music—as Taught in the Common Schools from Colonial Days to 1900 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961); Eugene Weber deals with France in his Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France

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Jingyi Li

“promotes the development of the national and world economy, science and culture.” 12 Here, the EFL curriculum was established with a clear economic motivation in order to meet “the needs of our Open Door Policy and to speed up socialist modernization.” 13

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Narrating the Second World War

History Textbooks and Nation Building in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

Lina Klymenko

members of the Communist Party became victims of Stalinist repression and were deported. 88 Similarly, the textbook pays special attention to the forced modernization of Soviet industry and agriculture undertaken from 1939 to 1941 in order to strengthen

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Esilda Luku

previous curriculum (National Strategy for Pre-University Education 2004–2015), the main objective of which was to modernize the curriculum framework for first- to twelfth-year pupils and to improve the reform for the liberalization of textbook publication

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Daisuke Miyao

The process of modernization in Japan appeared as a separation of the senses and remapping of the body, particularly privileging the sense of vision. How did the filmmakers, critics, and novelists in the 1920s and 1930s respond to such a reorganization of the body and the elevation of vision in the context of film culture? How did they formulate a cinematic discourse on remapping the body when the status of cinema was still in flux and its definition was debated? Focusing on cinematic commentary made by different writers, this article tackles these questions. Sato Haruo, Ozu Yasujiro, and Iwasaki Akira questioned the separation of the senses, which was often enforced by state. Inspired by German cinema released in Japan at that time, they explored the notion of the haptic in cinema and problematized the privileged sense of vision in this new visual medium.

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Digitizing the Western Gaze

The End FGM Guardian Global Media Campaign

Jessica Cammaert

communication devices such as portable radios broadcasting music, news and outside opinions becomes a central focus for male villagers’ frustration of not being able to control the women. Here, Sembène situates popular suspicions of outsiders and modernization

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Sakai Magara

Activist Girl of Early Twentieth Century Japan

Barbara Hartley

how the wildly inequitable distribution of material and social resources in pre-war Japan meant that modernization merely “increased the wealth and comfort of a small elite at the top” (203–204). The vast majority, including most girls, were denied

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Before and After Ghostcatching

Animation, Primitivism, and the Choreography of Vitality

Heather Warren-Crow

-determining force” (1999: 720, 721, 721). As Michael Taussig details, Benjamin credits technologies of reproduction—film, especially—with the alchemical potential to return what has been lost through devitalizing processes of maturation and modernization (1993: 20

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“There’s nothing makeup cannot do”

Women Beauty Vloggers’ Self-Representations, Transformations, and #thepowerofmakeup

Michele White

.1177/1464700106064423 Bartky , Sandra L. 1988 . “ Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power .” In Feminism and Foucault , ed. Irene Diamond and Lee Quinby , 61 – 86 . Boston : North-eastern University Press . Ben , Esther Ruiz . 2007