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Sophie Meunier

, France was always ambivalent towards European integration. The 1954 rejection of the European Defense Community by the French National Assembly and the 1965 Empty Chair Crisis led by Charles de Gaulle showed that national sovereignty remained a prime

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Aaron Freundschuh, Jonah D. Levy, Patricia Lorcin, Alexis Spire, Steven Zdatny, Caroline Ford, Minayo Nasiali, George Ross, William Poulin-Deltour, and Kathryn Kleppinger

’ mobilizations of 1968 dislodged Charles de Gaulle from power, electoral movements came to count most, leading to the takeover of the SFIO (Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière) by François Mitterrand after 1969 and the creation of the Parti socialiste

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The Origins of the Anti-Liberal Left

The 1979 Vincennes Conference on Neoliberalism

Michael C. Behrent

only taught at the University of Paris-8-Vincennes, but had also played critical roles in founding that unique institution. The “experimental university,” as it was known, was the brainchild of Charles de Gaulle’s education minister, Edgar Faure, who

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Sovereignty versus Influence

European Unity and the Conceptualization of Sovereignty in British Parliamentary Debates, 1945–2016

Teemu Häkkinen and Miina Kaarkoski

within it, whereas Macmillan made the decision for Britain to apply for membership in the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1961. 25 The British applications were twice vetoed (in 1963 and 1967) by the French under President Charles de Gaulle. After

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Think Global, Fight Local

Recontextualizing the French Army in Algeria, 1954–1962

Terrence G. Peterson

elicited increasing criticism within the upper ranks of the French military. Its more rigidly anti-Communist elements fit poorly with the nuanced efforts of Charles de Gaulle to negotiate an end to the war, and they did not reflect the body of knowledge