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Pertti Anttonen

All scholarly fields feed on rhetoric of praise and criticism, mostly self-praise and self-criticism. Ethnology and folklore studies are not exceptions in this, regardless of whether they constitute a single field or two separate but related ones. This essay discusses questions concerning ethnological practice and object formation, cultural theory and the theory of tradition (or the lack thereof), cultural transmission, cultural representation, and the ethics and politics of cultural ownership and repatriation. It draws on general observations as well as on work in progress. The main concern is with a discursive move: from tradition to heritage, from the ethnography of repetition and replication to cultural relativist descriptions and prescriptions of identity construction and cultural policy, from ethnography as explanation to ethnography as representation and presentation. In addition, the essay seeks to delineate other underlying tenets that appear to constitute our traditions and heritages - both as strengths and as long-term constraints and biases. Where is ethnology headed in its quest to transcend theories and practices? Less theory and more practice? More theory on practice? Or more practice on theory?

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Hugo Bonin and Aleksandra Konarzewska

One Swallow Does Not a Spring Make Pasi Ihalainen, The Springs of Democracy: National and Transnational Debates on Constitutional Reform in the British, German, Swedish and Finnish Parliaments, 1917–1919 (Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society

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The Inertia of Collections

Changes against the Grain in the Rosenlew Museum of Pori, Finland

Francisco Martínez

The first aim of this article is to study the persistence of the collection’s positive presentation of Rosenlew’s industrial heritage, and the second is to anthropologically reconsider what kind of knowledge is generated therein through the preservation and display of factory-made artifacts, which give a sense of concreteness and gravitas to the industrial past. By studying the permanent exhibition and the collections of the Rosenlew Museum and by organizing a workshop with schoolchildren, I reveal the presence of various inertia effects. Long-term corporate values continue to influence the development of the museum’s permanent collection not only through the arrangement of industrial artifacts into a collection but also—at a heuristic level—through epistemological frames and the indexing power of the museum assemblage.

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Gerhard L. Weinberg

This article covers three aspects of the Holocaust that are commonly misrepresented or ignored. First, an endlessly repeated piece of misinformation, is the description of the Holocaust as a project to kill the Jews of Europe. Most ignore the evidence that all Jews on earth were to be killed, that some outside Europe were killed, and that there were preparations for the killing of Jews in the Middle East. The second is the German expectation of winning the war, and that certain policies in implementing the Holocaust can only be understood in the context of an expectation of easier completion after victory. The third aspect is the absence from most accounts of the personal interests of those doing the killing in promotions, medals, loot, etc. in the early years and in safety from dangerous assignment to fighting at the front in the later years of the war.

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An Environmentally Literate Explorer

A. E. Nordenskiöld’s Three Expeditions to the North Asian Coast, 1875–1879

Seija A. Niemi

In 1869, the Finnish Swedish explorer and scientist Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld 1 wrote the following in a letter to Mikhail Sidorov (1823–1887), a Russian merchant: “I presume that a scientific expedition will also be the best way to promote

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Ferenc Bódi, Jenő Zsolt Farkas, and Péter Róbert

were the Visegrád Group (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia—hereinafter referred to as V4) and four Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—hereinafter referred to as S4). 1 The article introduces a phenomenon that

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Evert Van de Vliert

.356 Ethiopia −0.368 −2.118 −3.120 −1.218 Finland 1.525 1.242 0.710 1.840 France 0.536 1.268 0.818 1.282 Georgia 0.106 −1.100 −1.456 −1.142 Germany 0.923 1.275 0.856 1.092 Ghana −1.228 −1.157 −1.397 0.419 Greece −0.282 0.921 0.100 0.660 Guatemala −0.841 −0

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Under the Waves

A Review of “Spoils of Riches-Stories of the Vrouw Maria and the St Michel“ at the Maritime Centre Vellamo

Katariina Mauranen

Maritime Centre Vellamo, Tornatorintie 99, Katariina Mauranen, Imperial College London, Kotka, Finland Admission: €8/4 http://www.merikeskusvellamo.fi/en “Spoils of Riches” is open from 25 April to 2 December 2012

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Ann-Helén Andersson

Maria Margareta Österholm. 2012. Ett flicklaboratorium i valda bitar: Skeva flickor i svenskspråkig prosa från 1980-2005 [A girl laboratory in chosen parts: Skeva girls in Swedish and Finland Swedish literature from 1980 to 2005]. Stockholm: Rosenlarv Förlag.

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Hans Marks, Małgorzata Możdżyńska-Nawotka, Ewa Ignaczak, and Dorota Kolodziejczyk

Karen Armstrong, Remembering Karelia: a family’s story of displacement during and after the Finnish wars

Michael Carter, Fashion classics from Carlyle to Barthes

Halleh Ghorashi, Ways to survive, battles to win: Iranian women exiles in the Netherlands and the United States

Fred Inglis, Clifford Geertz: culture, custom and ethics