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Unbecoming Veteranship

Convicted Military Officers in Post-authoritarian Argentina

Eva van Roekel and Valentina Salvi

understandable considering the war crimes they have been convicted for. Since 2004, we have conducted ethnographic fieldwork among the now convicted military officers and their kin to make sense of their current position within Argentinian society and the

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“I Showed You What I Thought Was Appropriate”

Reflections on Longitudinal Ethnographic Research and the Performativity of Dutch Gang Life

Robert A. Roks

This article highlights some aspects of doing longitudinal ethnography in criminology. By zooming in and reflecting on some of the key moments and methodological choices made over the course of more than 15 years of fieldwork among members of a Dutch gang, this article illustrates that relations with informants have the potential to strengthen over time, but that building rapport and trust with (active) offenders is not necessarily a linear process. In addition to voicing the emotional and evocative aspects of these methodological deliberations, this “true confession” is meant to spark some more debate on how longitudinal fieldwork in criminology impacts field relations by critically examining not only the performativity of informants, but also of researchers.

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Democratization of Perpetration

Human Rights, Transitional Justice, and Memories of Resistance in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste

Amy Rothschild

This article examines the effects of human rights and transitional justice on memories of Timor-Leste’s resistance to the Indonesian occupation, which lasted from 1975 to 1999. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork in Timor, centered around remembrance of two major acts of resistance: an armed uprising in 1983 and a peaceful demonstration in 1991. The article argues that in Timor, an “apolitical” human rights has caused a post-conflict “democratization of perpetration”, in that similar culpability is assigned to all those who caused suffering in the conflict with Indonesia through physical violence, irrespective of context. Transitional justice has thus expanded the category of perpetrator in Timor, to include some who legally used armed resistance against Indonesian rule. Studies of violence have belatedly turned toward examining perpetrators of state terror; this article examines how discourses of human rights and transitional justice shape perceptions of those who resist state terror with violence.

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“There Was No Genocide in Rwanda”

History, Politics, and Exile Identity among Rwandan Rebels in the Eastern Congo Conflict

Anna Hedlund

This article analyzes how the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is recalled and described by members of a Hutu rebel group, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) whose leadership can be linked to the 1994 atrocities in Rwanda. The article explores how individuals belonging to this rebel group, currently operating in the eastern territories of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), articulate, contest, and oppose the dominant narrative of the Rwandan genocide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with members of the FDLR in a rebel camp, this article shows how a community of exiled fighters and second-generation Hutu refugees contest the official version of genocide by constructing a counterhistory of it. Through organized practices such as political demonstrations and military performances, it further shows how political ideologies and violence are being manufactured and reproduced within a setting of military control.

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“What about Last Time?”

Exploring Potentiality in Danish Young Women’s Violent Conflicts

Ann-Karina Henriksen

The article explores how violence as actuality and potentiality shapes the lives of Danish at-risk girls and young women. The article draws on seven months of ethnographic fieldwork in Copenhagen and includes 25 girls and young women aged 13 to 23 who have all experienced using physical violence. Centering on a single young woman’s narrative, violence is analyzed as a meaningful social practice intimately linked to navigating violent social terrains and managing precarious everyday lives characterized by instability and marginalization. Drawing on the concept of potentiality, it is argued that violent interactions are shaped by both the fear of oncoming danger and the desire for powerful social positions. This perspective opens a micro-longitudinal perspective, which explores situational dynamics of violence through time, hereby contributing to micro-sociological studies of violence.

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Times of Violence

The Shifting Temporalities of Long-Term Ethnographic Engagement with Burundi

Simon Turner

Over the past two decades, I have done ethnographic fieldwork amongst Burundians in Burundi and in exile, exploring the different ways they deal with the violence that the country has witnessed over the decades. In this article I follow my tracks back and forth and in and out of the country, reflecting on the advantages and challenges of long-term engagement. At a conceptual level, I propose that while violence is indeed lodged in a social context, violent events create a momentary temporal rupture, thereby dislodging meaning from its local context of understanding. My methodological contribution is to explore how long-term engagements, revisits, and diachronic comparisons in ethnography may help us understand violence and violent events. I explore how violent events have affected the past, the present, and the future, causing those who experience it to reorient their understanding not only of their pasts but also of their anticipations for the future.

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R. Tina Catania

English abstract: In studies of immigration, generation is typically considered a static categorical system. I argue, however, that generation is a fluid construct and must be understood as place-based. Drawing on fieldwork conducted among Latino/as along the Texas–Mexico border, I seek to explore what current framings of generation leave out. Many in Laredo, Texas, see this border as allowing or preventing movement; these perceptions impact the constructions of generational categories. Cross-border travel, conceptualizations of place and immigration, and mixed-generational unions shape immigrant experiences, and in turn, affect concepts of generation. I conclude by offering ideas and inviting discussion on how the concept of generation can be re-worked to move beyond blunt categories and be re-conceptualized from the perspective of immigrants.

Spanish abstract: Usualmente los estudios sobre inmigración consideran la generación cómo un sistema categórico estático. Este artículo argumenta que es una construcción fluida que debe ser comprendida como una iniciativa local. Mediante un trabajo de campo realizado a latinos/as en la frontera entre Texas y México, el artículo explora qué corrientes actuales de generaciones están excluidas. Muchos en Laredo (Texas) ven esa frontera como un factor que permite o impide los desplazamientos, percepciones que influyen en las construcciones de categorías generacionales. Los viajes transfronterizos, las conceptualizaciones del lugar y de la inmigración y las uniones generacionales mixtas, dibujan las experiencias de los inmigrantes, lo que a su vez, influye en los conceptos de las generaciones. El autor concluye abriendo un espacio de discusión sobre la manera de cómo se debe de re-trabajar el concepto de generación para sobrepasar las categorías terminantes y para ser re-conceptualizadas desde la perspectiva de los inmigrantes.

French abstract: Dans les études portant sur l'immigration, la génération est généralement considérée comme un système rigide statique. Cependant, nous soutenons que la génération est une construction fluide et doit être comprise comme une initiative locale. Partant d'un travail de terrain réalisé auprès des Latino / le long de la frontière entre le Texas et le Mexique, je cherche à explorer les courants qui traversent ce e génération lésée. Beaucoup à Laredo, au Texas voient ce e frontière comme un facteur favorisant ou empêchant les déplacements; ces perceptions influent sur la construction des catégories générationnelles. La migration transfrontalière, les conceptualisations de l'espace et de l'immigration, et les mariages générationnels mixtes façonnent les expériences vécues par les migrants, qui à leur tour, influent sur les concepts de génération. Nous concluons en proposant des idées et invitant à la discussion sur la façon dont le concept de génération peut être retravaillé pour s'étendre au-delà des catégories franches et être re-conceptualisé du point de vue des immigrés.

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Introduction

The Social Life of Contentious Concepts

Ronald S. Stade

). The encyclopedia was meant to serve the same purpose for historiography, as had long-term ethnographic fieldwork for anthropology: to relativize and contextualize cultural meanings. In early historiography, presentism, that is, reading concepts through

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Danger, Moral Opacity, and Outrage

Fear of Jihadism and the Terrorist Threat in Southern Mali

Tone Sommerfelt

ensuing coup d’état against the Malian government in March 2012 (see Lecocq et al. 2013 ), public expressions of anger against suspected militant jihadists have intensified in urban centers in the south. During my fieldwork in 2013 and 2014, I found that

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Introduction

War Veterans and the Construction of Citizenship Categories

Nikkie Wiegink, Ralph Sprenkels, and Birgitte Refslund Sørensen

, social, bureaucratic, and historical processes in a variety of case studies situated in different geographical contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, the contributions try to capture how these processes are understood from “within” by those involved