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Sacred Journeys

A Lucrative Revenue Stream

Shadia Taha

Pilgrimage has been performed by members of all religions, and all beliefs, from prehistoric times to the present. The visitation of religious and sacred sites represents a significant economic resource for many faith establishments and organizations. In this article, I will explore the Muslim Hajj to Mecca as a case study. The study is based on ethnographic research using interviews and observation. The economic impact of pilgrims is a multifaceted and complex subject. Pilgrims spend money on transport, accommodation, and other services; hence, they contribute to the economy of the host state. My research suggests that there is a particular type of relationship between the economic and the spiritual aspects of pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia.

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Kyri W. Claflin

In the early twentieth century, French academic veterinarians launched a meat trade reform movement. Their primary objective was the construction of a network of regional industrial abattoirs equipped with refrigeration. These modern, efficient abattoirs-usines would produce and distribute chilled dead meat, rather than livestock, to centers of consumption, particularly Paris. This system was hygienic and economical and intended to replace the insanitary artisanal meat trade centered on the La Villette cattle market and abattoir in Paris. The first abattoirs-usines opened during World War I, but within 10 years the experiment had begun to encounter serious difficulties. For decades afterward, the experiment survived in the collective memory as a complete fiasco, even though some abattoirs-usines in fact persisted by altering their business models. This article examines the roadblocks of the interwar era and the effects of both the problems and their perception on the post-1945 meat trade.

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Environmental Expertise as Group Belonging

Environmental Sociology Meets Science and Technology Studies

Rolf Lidskog and Göran Sundqvist

sociology: the treadmill of production, risk society, and ecological modernization. We conclude that these theories are not clear about either what expertise is or how to balance scientism and powerism. Therefore, we turn to science and technology studies

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Travel and Transformation

A Diachronic Study of the Changing Concept of Weisheng in Chinese Journals, 1880-1930

Bo Hu

course of weisheng’s transformation, with the awakening of the Chinese to the effectiveness of Japan’s modernization that led to a Chinese student movement to Japan that was “probably the largest mass student movement overseas in the world history up to

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Shelling from the ivory tower

Project Camelot and the post–World War II operationalization of social science

Philip Y. Kao

. According to Nils Gilman, “Like early anthropological theory, modernization theory transposed temporal categories onto geographic categories” (2003: 27). Project Camelot consisted of several parts: (1) a theoretical design focusing on developing a model of a

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Landscapes and Races in Early Twentieth-Century Peru

The Travels of José Uriel García and Aurelio Miró Quesada Sosa

Rupert J. M. Medd

In this article I discuss the modernization of Peru during the 1930s and 1940s by focusing on the variety of ways in which Peru’s interior regions, natural resources, and people were being perceived and written about. I reflect on two narratives

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Valentina Mitkova

modernization after the Liberation (1878), the canon embodied the aspirations of the Bulgarian literary history to establish native authors (and culture) within world literature and cultural development. The selective canon tended to be a scene of intense power

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Franziska von Verschuer

-twentieth century modernization of global agriculture, the international debate on the need for conservation efforts was still in its infancy. Since then, new international regulatory frameworks have consolidated a global system of conservation in which most

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Objects of Dispute

Planning, Discourse, and State Power in Post-War France

Edward Welch

modernized French future in the present of the 1960s and 1970s. Recent accounts of spatial production in post-war France, by Busbea, Cupers, and Wakeman among others, have drawn on and underlined the vast quantity of discursive material produced as part of

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The Ethics of Collective Sponsorship

Virtuous Action and Obligation in Contemporary Tibet

Jane Caple

perceptions are partially framed through an imagining of a utopian past and/or reflect actual processes of ‘individualization’ in the present, villagers are living through a time of accelerating processes of ‘modernizing’ social change (e.g., Dewa is rapidly