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Hijacking Cultural Policies

Art as a Healthy Virus within Social Strategies of Resistance

Marina Fokidis

The Egnatia Road project describes a cooperative action between European artists and local populations along the ancient route from Rome to Constantinople. Focusing on myths and memories of territorial and metaphorical displacement over centuries, it represents a space of resistance realized in narrative and physical action. The process of constructing the road engages artistic activism and local communities in creating a participatory cultural product. Begun as a road trip to the Balkans, the research in history, storytelling, and half-forgotten traditions has resulted in the creation of mobile laboratories and events involving a range of people and experiences. The ongoing intention has been to produce paving stones recording the personal and communal experiences of people along the road. As an exercise in public art, the project has raised new questions and insights into the nature of popular dissent and the role of art in giving it a voice in wider venues and situations.

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On the Asphalt Path to Divinity

Contemporary Transformations in Albanian Bektashism: The Case of Sari Saltik Teqe in Kruja

Marta Kołczyńska

This article presents one of the many faces of contemporary Islam in the Balkans, that of the Bektashi community in Albania, and specifically the Sari Saltik teqe (sanctuary) on Kruja mountain. In so doing, it sheds light on the role of religion in 'post-atheist' Albania, while taking into account major changes to the religious landscape in the post-communist, and arguably post-transformation context. The essay ethnographically examines the challenges posed by societal changes for the Kruja teqe, which is undergoing its own micro-scale technological revolution in the form of a newly constructed asphalt road to the top of the mountain, which will likely have far-reaching consequences for the shrine and the whole local community. The essay thus illustrates how Albanian society has become entangled with the turbulent processes of modernisation, increased mobility and the globalising world.

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Introduction

Religious Plurality, Interreligious Pluralism, and Spatialities of Religious Difference

Jeremy F. Walton and Neena Mahadev

The introduction to this special section foregrounds the key distinction between ‘religious plurality’ and ‘interreligious pluralism’. Building from the example of a recent controversy over an exhibition on shared religious sites in Thessaloniki, Greece, we analyze the ways in which advocates and adversaries of pluralism alternately place minority religions at the center or attempt to relegate them to the margins of visual, spatial, and political fields. To establish the conceptual scaffolding that supports this special section, we engage the complex relations that govern the operations of state and civil society, sacrality and secularity, as well as spectacular acts of disavowal that simultaneously coincide with everyday multiplicities in the shared use of space. We conclude with brief summaries of the four articles that site religious plurality and interreligious pluralism in the diverse contexts of Brazil, Russia, Sri Lanka, and the Balkans.

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Carl Thompson, The Suffering Traveller and the Romantic Imagination Felipe Fernández-Armesto

Ros Ballaster, Fabulous Orients: Fictions of the East in England 1662-1785 Pramod K. Nayar

Katherine Haldane Grenier, Tourism and Identity in Scotland, 1770-1914: Creating Caledonia Eric G.E. Zuelow

Andrew Hammond, The Debated Lands: British and American Representations of the Balkans Wendy Bracewell

Tabish Khair, et al, Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing Brian Yothers

Kate Teltscher, The High Road to China: George Bogle, the Panchen Lama and the First British Expedition to Tibet Felipe Fernández-Armesto

Monica Anderson, Women and the Politics of Travel, 1870–1914 Mefdüne Yürekli

Krista Thompson, An Eye for the Tropics: Tourism, Photography, and Framing the Caribbean Picturesque Annie Paul

Jeffrey Ruoff (ed.), Virtual Voyages: Cinema and Travel Gaetana Marrone

Muzaffar Alam and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Indo-Persian Travels in the Age of Discoveries, 1400-1880 Serge Gruzinski

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Jytte Klausen, The Islamic Challenge. Politics and Religion in Western Europe (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Reviewed by Joyce Mushaben

David Art, The Politics of the Nazi Past in Germany and Austria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Reviewed by Antonis Ellinas

Michael Bernhard, Institutions and the Fate of Democracy: Germany and Poland in the 20th Century (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005))

Reviewed by John Bendix

Brian Rathbun, Partisan Interventions: European Party Politics and Peace Enforcement in the Balkans (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004).

Reviewed by Charles King

Judd Stitziel, Fashioning Socialism: Clothing, Politics and Consumer Culture in East Germany (New York: Berg, 2005).

Reviewed by Catherine Plum

Cindy Skach, Borrowing Constitutional Designs: Constitutional Law in Weimar Germany and the French Fifth Republic, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).

Reviewed by Michael Bernhard

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Vasiliki P. Neofotistos

Using the Republic of North Macedonia as a case study, this article analyzes the processes through which national sports teams’ losing performance acquires a broad social and political significance. I explore claims to sporting victory as a direct product of political forces in countries located at the bottom of the global hierarchy that participate in a wider system of coercive rule, frequently referred to as empire. I also analyze how public celebrations of claimed sporting victories are intertwined with nation-building efforts, especially toward the global legitimization of a particular version of national history and heritage. The North Macedonia case provides a fruitful lens through which we can better understand unfolding sociopolitical developments, whereby imaginings of the global interlock with local interests and needs, in the Balkans and beyond.

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Judeo-Spanish Traditional Literature

Half a Century of Fieldwork and Scholarship

Samuel G. Armistead

Our collaborative project concerning the traditional literature and folklore of the Spanish-speaking Sephardic Jews of the Balkans and North Africa began in 1957 and has continued up to the present. During the project's fifty-three years (so far), we have interviewed some 164 Balkan and seventy-five North African Sephardic informants, in the U.S. (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Philadelphia, New York), in Israel (eight different communities), in Morocco (six communities) and in Spain (Madrid). Our Eastern informants originated in Rhodes, Salonika, Tekirdağ, Izmir, Israel, Monastir, and a number of small Bosphorus communities. Our collection of traditional ballads (a majority of medieval Hispanic origin) totals just under 1,500 texts. We also collected abundant examples of lyric poetry, folktales, proverbs, folk cures, and popular beliefs. Five volumes of our projected sixteen-volume edition of Sephardic narrative ballads and other folk literature have already been published; three more volumes are currently being prepared for publication. Our editions systematically include studies of the songs' texts and their traditional tunes (the latter transcribed and studied by Israel J. Katz). One of our many crucially important aims has been to save, for the benefit of future generations, the precious oral literature and folklore of the Sephardic Jews.

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Orlin Sabev, Georgeta Nazarska, Ivan Chorvát, Maria Rentetzi, Tatyana Stoicheva, Jasmina Lukić, Alina Haliliuc, Raili Põldsaar, Alon Rachamimov, Sabina Žnidaršič, Grażyna Szelagowska, and Oksana Kis

Elif Ekin Aksit, Kızların Sessizlig ̆i. Kız Enstitülerinin Uzun Tarihi (The silence of girls: The long history of female institutes)

Tzvetana Boncheva, Brak I semejstvo pri balgarite katolitsi ot Plovdivsko prez parvata polovina na XX vek (Marriage and family life of the Bulgarian Catholics from the Plovdiv region during the first half of the twentieth century)

Zora Bútorová et al, She and He in Slovakia: Gender and Age in the Period of Transition

Christine von Oertzen, The Pleasure of a Surplus Income: Part-Time Work, Gender Politics, and Social Change in West Germany, 1955–1969

Karl Kaser, Patriarchy after Patriarchy: Gender Relations in Turkey and in the Balkans, 1500–2000

Alaine Polcz, One Woman in the War. Hungary 1944–1945

Zoltán Rostás and Theodora-Eliza Va ̆ca ̆rescu, eds., Cealalta ̆ juma ̆tate a istoriei. Femei povestind (The other half of history: Women telling their stories)

Suzanne Stiver Lie, Lynda Malik, Ilvi Jõe-Cannon and Rutt Hinrikus, eds., Carrying Linda’s Stones: An Anthology of Estonian Women’s Life Stories

Laurie S. Stoff, They Fought for the Motherland: Russia’s Women Soldiers in World War I and the Revolution

Nina Vodopivec, Labirinti postsocializma (The labyrinths of post-socialism)

Anna Zarnowska, Workers, Women, and Social Change in Poland, 1870–1939

Tatyana Zhurzhenko, Gendernyye rynki Ukrainy: politicheskaya ekomomiya natsionalnogo stroitelstva (The gendered markets of Ukraine: The political economy of nation building)

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Liliana Simeonova, Anna Hájková, Sashka Georgieva, Kristina Yordanova, Anna Loutfi, Svetla Baloutzova, Christiane Eifert, Francisca de Haan, Olga Todorova, Daniela Koleva, Susan Zimmermann, and Isidora Jarić

Marianna D. Birnbaum, The Long Journey of Gracia Mendes

Melissa Feinberg, Elusive Equality: Gender, Citizenship, and the Limits of Democracy in Czechoslovakia, 1918–1950

Linda Garland, ed., Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800–1200

Milena Kirova, Maya Boyadzhievska and Biljana Dojcˇinovic´-Nešic´, eds., Glasove: Nova humanitaristika ot balkanski avtorki (Voices: New humanitarian studies of women writers from the Balkans)

Ruth A. Miller, The Limits of Bodily Integrity. Abortion, Adultery and Rape Legislation in Comparative Perspective

Luisa Passerini, Dawn Lyon, Enrica Capussotti and Ioanna Laliotou, eds., Women Migrants from East to West. Gender, Mobility and Belonging in Contemporary Europe 263

Ralf Roth and Robert Beachy, eds., Who Ran the Cities? City Elites and Urban Power Structures in Europe and North America, 1750–1940

Edith Saurer, Margareth Lanzinger and Elisabeth Frysak, eds., Women’s Movements. Networks and Debates in Post-Communist Countries in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Lucienne Thys-S¸ enocak, Ottoman Women Builders. The Architectural Patronage of Hadice Turhan Sultan

Galina Valtchinova, Balkanski yasnovidki i prorochici ot XX vek (Balkan visionaries and prophetesses in the twentieth century)

Natascha Vittorelli, Frauenbewegung um 1900. Über Triest nach Zagreb (The women’s movement around 1900. Through Trieste to Zagreb)

Dubravka Žarkov, The Body of War: Media, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Break-up of Yugoslavia

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New Men, Old Europe

Being a Man in Balkan Travel Writing

Wendy Bracewell

Much modern Western travel writing presents Eastern Europe, and especially the Balkans, as a sort of museum of masculinity: an area where men, whether revolutionaries, politicians or workers, are depicted as behaving in ways that are seen as almost exaggeratedly masculine according to the standards of the traveller. Physical toughness and violence, sexual conquest and the subordination of women, guns, strong drink and moustaches feature heavily. This is a region where men are men - and sometimes so are the women, whether 'sworn virgins' living their lives as honorary men, heroic female partisans or, in more derisive accounts, alarmingly muscular and hirsute athletes, stewardesses and waitresses. But the notion of a characteristically masculine Balkans is not limited to outsiders. It can appear in travel accounts from the region as well, ranging from Aleko Konstantinov's emblematic fictional Bulgarian traveller, Bai Ganyo Balkanski, with his boorish disregard of European norms of behaviour (Konstantinov 1895/1966), to more polished travel writers who nonetheless find it useful to contrast a 'Balkan' model to Western versions of manliness.