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Virtual Heroes

Boys, Masculinity and Historical Memory in War Comics 1945–1995

Alexander Clarkson

This article maintains that as a genre war comics are a valuable and neglected source for understanding constructions of ideal masculinity in the post-war West. While its main focus is the depiction of heroic manliness in one of the most commercially successful American war comics, G.I. Joe, comparisons are made with Britain’s Commando Comics and the German pictorial war magazine Landser, which concentrated mainly on the Second World War and also enjoyed wide popularity. The article suggests that while mainly addressing an adolescent readership, over time these comics came to direct their political and moral messages not only to boys but also to increasing numbers of older men who had started reading these comics when they were boys themselves. In particular, it argues that war comics strategically deployed notions of “boyishness” in their story lines, exploiting both the negative and positive connotations of the word to make readers question the egotism and immorality of contemporary society.

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Benoît Challand

This article argues that the symbolic borders of Europe and the existence of external Others have been at times more important than Europe's center or its actual physical boundaries, especially during the first decades after the foundation of the European Communities. Analyzing textual and visual sources taken from some ninety French, Italian, and German history textbooks published between 1950 and 2005, the various sequences in which European integration has been constructed are highlighted. Communism, the first external Other, provided the first minimum common denominator for a nascent political Europe. It was not until the end of the Cold War that a projection of a distinct European identity appeared. Nevertheless, the role of new external Other(s) remains important for the evolution of the discourse of a European identity. This article draws attention to the Others, seeking to embed the Others' perspective in narratives of Europe.

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Narrating the Second World War

History Textbooks and Nation Building in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

Lina Klymenko

/Russian soldiers of the Red Army and Soviet partisans) against the German occupiers Fight of the Soviet people and the Belarusian people (Belarusian and Soviet soldiers of the Red Army, Belarusian and Soviet partisans) against the German occupiers Fight of the

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Introduction: World Knowledge and Non-European Space

Nineteenth Century Geography Textbooks and Children’s Books

Andreas Weiß

anthropological terms. To demonstrate the similarities and differences between “modern” nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century educational programs, we have collected examples from the German Empire, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turkey, the United

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“Hitlermania”

Nazism and the Holocaust in Indian History Textbooks

Basabi Khan Banerjee and Georg Stöber

Bengal, and the Arabian Sea. In Nazi ideology, “Aryan” was linked with the German word meaning “honor” ( Ehre ) in order to create the notion of a blond, pale-skinned, blue-eyed, and pure-blooded “Aryan race.” 5 Likewise, the swastika was an ancient

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Introduction

Educational Films: A Historical Review of Media Innovation in Schools

Eckhardt Fuchs, Anne Bruch, and Michael Annegarn-Gläß

Translator : Nicola Watson

, production and analysis must incorporate pedagogical expertise. 4 Most frequently found in German contemporary sources is the term Kulturfilm (“cultural film”), which became synonymous with all nonfiction films until the 1950s. Principally instructional

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“Presentism” Versus “Path Dependence”?

Reflections on the Second World War in Russian Textbooks of the 1990s

Serguey Ehrlich

, the fascist states Germany and Italy allied with militarist Japan”; 17 “fascism in power in Germany”; 18 and “German-fascist troops.” 19 In Soviet times, it was common to qualify Hitler's regime as “fascism” rather than “Nazism,” in order to avoid

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Educational Film Studies

A Burgeoning Field of Research

Anne Bruch

also the topic of study in the above mentioned monograph by Wolfgang Fuhrmann, Imperial Projections: Screening the German Colonies . 45 He focuses on the ethnographers’ experience with the new medium of film and German notion of ethnology

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Introduction

Cinemas of Boyhood Part II

Timothy Shary

Revoir Les Enfants (1987) , and The Son of the Shark (1993) . In Italy, another film about boys inaugurated a movement just after the war—De Sica’s neorealist Shoeshine (1946) ; in West Germany, The Trapp Family (1956) would inspire the American

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“The Community is Everything, The Individual is Nothing”

The Second World War in Russian History Education

Dagmara Moskwa

a war of liberation (of Europe from fascism) and defense (of Soviet territory from Germany). For Russians, the first phase of the Second World War (from 1939 to 1941) holds different connotations than it does for Western Europeans. From the Russian