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Céline Braconnier and Jean-Yves Dormagen

The presidential election of 2012 produced a high turn-out. Only 20 percent of the electorate abstained. This significant mobilization, however, hides renewed social inequalities in political participation that seemed to have previously disappeared. Based on national and local data surveys, this paper shows that certain kinds of people are less likely to vote than the average citizen. While traditionally more prone to abstain than other voters, many young, poorly educated, and suburban people participated in the presidential election in 2007, but not in 2012. In this later case, they seem to have not been interested in the electoral campaign.

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Suzanne Graham and Victoria Graham

English abstract: Apart from Mauritius, five of the six African small island developing States (ASIDS) are relatively new to democracy with several only transitioning from one-party states to multiparty states in the early 1990s. Goals 13 and 14 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are priority goals for the ASIDS. Given that one of the key tests of a healthy democracy is the depth of civil society, this article seeks to examine the quality of political participation in the ASIDS in relation to these two priority SDGs. In so doing, this article considers conventional and nonconventional forms of participation and the potential impact these different avenues for a public “voice” might or might not have on the ASIDS’ government management of climate change and marine resources.

Spanish abstract: Excepto Mauritius, los otros cinco pequeños estados insulares africanos en desarrollo (ASIDS en inglés) recién incursionan en la democracia; algunos de ellos transitan de estados con un solo partido a estados múlti-partidistas a principios de los años noventa. Los objetivos 13 y 14 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS) son prioritarios para los ASIDS. Considerando que una prueba de democracia sana es una sociedad civil robusta, este artículo examina la calidad de la participación política en los ASIDS en relación con estos dos ODS. El artículo considera las formas convencionales y no convencionales de participación y el impacto potencial que estas distintas vías de “voz” pública pueda tener en el manejo del cambio climático y los recursos marinos de las ASIDS.

French abstract: A l’exception de l’île Maurice, cinq des six petits états îles en dévelopement (PEID) d’Afrique sont relativement nouveaux en matière de démocratie dans la mesure où certains ont uniquement transité du parti unique au multipartisme au début des années 90. Treize des quatorze ODD sont prioritaires pour les PEID. En partant du constat qu’une des preuves clefs d’une démocratie saine réside dans l’amplitude de la société civile, cet article cherche à examiner la qualité de la participation politique dans les PEID en relation avec deux ODD prioritaires. Ainsi, l’article considère des formes de participation conventionnelles et non conventionnelles ainsi que leur impact potentiel sur une expression publique en particulier, à savoir l’existence d’une gestion gouvernementale des PEID d’Afrique en matière de changement climatique et de ressources marines.

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No longer strong social cohesion

Lessons from two transboundary water conflicts in the Mexicali Valley, México

Alfonso Andrés Cortez-Lara

English abstract: This work examines the role of local stakeholders in managing transboundary and irrigation water in the Mexicali Valley. The analysis focuses on the impacts of institutions as they relate to two transboundary water conflicts, the salinity problem, and the All-American Canal lining divergence. The views of farmers and water managers show that farmers have lost social cohesion and economic and political power during the period in between these two episodes, which in turn reduced their role and influence in water management issues. During the salinity problem, unified and strong leadership and widespread participation were credited with influencing beneficial outcomes. On the other hand, the existence of opposing views regarding the All-American Canal lining conflict and weak leadership seem responsible for ineffective participation in solutions. The research illuminates the complexities of water management in transboundary settings and the role that local actors may play in increasing cooperation and regional integration.

Spanish abstract: Este artículo revisa el papel de los actores locales en la gestión y manejo de recursos hídricos transfronterizos y el riego en el Valle de Mexicali. El análisis enfatiza los impactos de los arreglos institucionales relacionados con dos conflictos por aguas transfronterizas, el problema de la salinidad del río Colorado y el revestimiento del Canal Todo Americano. Las percepciones de los agricultores y los gestores del agua indican que los agricultores han ido perdiendo cohesión social y poder económico y político lo cual ha reducido su papel e influencia en aspectos relacionados a la gestión de aguas transfronterizas. Durante el episodio de la salinidad, fue notoria la unificación y fortaleza de liderazgos que indujeron una significativa participación social. En contraste, la prevalencia de opiniones diversas respecto al conflicto del revestimiento conjugado con el frágil liderazgo redundó en una inefectividad de los usuarios para lograr impactos positivos. El artículo muestra la complejidad de la gestión transfronteriza del agua así como el papel clave que los actores locales pudieran tener para alcanzar la cooperación e integración regional.

French abstract: Ce travail examine le rôle des acteurs locaux dans la gestion des eaux transfrontalières et d'irrigation dans la Vallée de Mexicali. Ce e analyse se concentre sur l'impact des institutions dans la mesure où elles ont pris part à deux conflits sur l'eau, et traitent du problème de la salinité et des divergences sur le tracé du canal All-American. Les opinions des fermiers et des gestionnaires de l'eau révèlent que les fermiers ont perdu toute cohésion sociale ainsi que tout pouvoir politique et économique durant la période entre ces deux épisodes. Il en a résulté qu'ils ont de fait perdu leur rôle et leur influence dans les domaines de la gestion de l'eau. Au cours du problème de salinité, un leadership unifié et fort et une vaste participation ont été récompensés par d'excellents résultats. Mais de l'autre côté, l'existence de vues opposées dans le cadre du conflit sur le tracé du Canal All-American ainsi qu'un pauvre leadership ont vraisemblablement entraîné une participation inefficace lors de la recherche de solutions. Ce e étude met en lumière les complexités de la gestion de l'eau dans des cadres transnationaux, et le rôle que peuvent jouer les acteurs locaux dans l'augmentation de la coopération et de l'intégration régionale.

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Evaluating the Quality and Legitimacy of Global Governance

A Theoretical and Analytical Approach

Tim Cadman

Global governance, central to international rule-making, is rapidly evolving; thus, there is a need for a way to evaluate whether institutions have the capacity to address the problems of the contemporary era. Current methods of evaluating the democratic quality of contemporary governance are closely linked to legitimacy, about which there are competing definitional theories. This article uses a theoretical approach based around “new“ governance and the environmental policy arena to argue that contemporary governance is best understood as social-political interaction built on “participation as structure“ and “deliberation as process“, with the level of interaction ultimately determining legitimacy. It presents a new arrangement of the accepted attributes of “good“ governance using a set of principles, criteria and indicators, and relates these to the structures and processes of governance. The implications and application of the analytical framework are also discussed.

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Michael Whyte

In this article I explore links between fieldwork experience and different conceptions of time as they are encountered in what I term 'episodic fieldwork'. I use 'episodic' to emphasize the importance of absence and return for fieldwork relationships and the ethnographies that are founded on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity, which is at the heart of sociability, becomes a tool for exploring time and new social experiences and the ways in which chronology is interwoven with shifting social positions.

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El desarrollo sostenible como política pública

Caso Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado de Quito

María del Carmen Zenck Huerta, Puiyen Urrutia Camchong, and Ingrid Ríos Rivera

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: Quito, the capital of Ecuador, was chosen by WWF in 2016 as one of the most sustainable cities in Latin America, a distinction it shares with Bogotá, Cali, Monteria, San Isidro, Miraflores, Rio de Janeiro, Recife and Belo Horizonte. To reach this recognition, the local governments of these cities implement economic, social and environmental policies that lay the legal foundations for an integrally sustainable and coherent development. This study explores the unique case of Quito, whose decentralized autonomous government implements a local public policy on social responsibility for the promotion of the sustainable development of the territory, based on corporate co-responsibility and citizen participation, incorporating international standards such as the Global Compact Principles, GRI, ISO 26000 and the SDGs.

Spanish abstract: Quito, capital de Ecuador, fue elegida por WWF en 2016 como una de las ciudades más sostenibles en América Latina, distinción que comparte junto a Bogotá, Cali, Montería, San Isidro, Miraflores, Río de Janeiro, Recife y Belo Horizonte. Para llegar a este reconocimiento, los gobiernos locales de estas ciudades implementan políticas económicas, sociales y medioambientales que sientan las bases legales para un desarrollo sostenible integral y coherente. Este estudio explora el caso único de Quito, cuyo gobierno autónomo descentralizado implementa una política pública local en responsabilidad social para el fomento del desarrollo sostenible del territorio, sustentada en la corresponsabilidad corporativa y la participación ciudadana, incorporando normas internacionales como los Principios del Pacto Global, GRI, ISO 26000 y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.

French abstract: Quito, la capitale de l’Équateur, a été choisie par le WWF en 2016 comme l’une des villes les plus durables d’Amérique latine, une distinction qu’elle partage avec Bogota, Cali, Monteria, San Isidro, Miraflores, Rio de Janeiro, Recife et Belo Horizonte. Pour parvenir à cette reconnaissance, les gouvernements locaux de ces villes mettent en oeuvre des politiques économiques, sociales et environnementales qui jettent les bases juridiques d’un développement durable intégral et cohérent. Cette étude explore le cas unique de Quito, dont le gouvernement autonome décentralisé met en oeuvre une politique publique locale de responsabilité sociale pour la promotion du développement durable du territoire, fondée sur la coresponsabilité des entreprises et la participation des citoyens, intégrant des normes internationales telles que le Pacte Mondial Principes, GRI, ISO 26000 et les ODD.

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Jakob Krause-Jensen

At the Danish University School of Education we have experimented with a form of assessment called 'active participation'. A week before each class students are given reading guidelines and questions to help them approach the texts, and on the basis of one of those questions the students each write a two-page essay. The students are given electronic feedback on their essays (and might have to revise and resubmit them if they do not meet requirements). Among other things, the advantages of this type of examination are: that the students practise academic writing on a regular basis; that feedback becomes an integral part of teaching; that the students must read steadily over the whole semester; and that they are encouraged to take part in all the classes.

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Being a Community Health Worker Means Advocating

Participation, Perceptions, and Challenges in Advocacy

Ryan I. Logan

Community health workers (CHWs) participate in advocacy as a crucial means to empower clients in overcoming health disparities and to improve the health and social well-being of their communities. Building on previous studies, this article proposes a new framework for conceptualising CHW advocacy, depending on the intended impact level of CHW advocacy. CHWs participate in three ‘levels’ of advocacy, the micro, the macro, and the professional. This article also details the challenges they face at each level. As steps are taken to institutionalise these workers throughout the United States and abroad, there is a danger that their participation in advocacy will diminish. As advocacy serves as a primary conduit through which to empower clients, enshrining this role in steps to integrate these workers is essential. Finally, this article provides justification for the impacts of CHWs in addressing the social determinants of health and in helping their communities strive towards health equity.

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Demonstrating resistance

Politics and participation in the marches of the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo

Victoria Ana Goddardl

This article explores ways in which the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo confronted the state on the violence perpetrated during Argentina's "dirty war" during the 1970s and early 1980s. Focusing particularly on the Marches of Resistance initiated during the last years of the military regime in 1981, the article argues that their resistance had an important effect on political culture, encouraging participation and innovative forms of political action. At the same time, shifts in political conditions also caused internal changes in the Mothers' movement. A discussion of the circumstances that resulted in a schism within the movement and current divergences in conducting the marches leads to reflections on different interpretations of the political.

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Protest Activity, Social Incentives, and Rejection Sensitivity

Results from a Survey Experiment about Tuition Fees

Emma A. Bäck, Hanna Bäck, and Gema Garcia-Albacete

People may engage in protest activity either because of collective incentives or selective incentives, or a combination of them. In this study we focus on the selective incentives part of the calculus of political participation, particularly the impact of the social dimension. We hypothesize that people will participate in demonstrations or other forms of protest, to a higher extent if they are afraid of rejection, but only if they feel that they have high social support for their own position. This hypothesis was supported in an online survey experiment where social support was manipulated. Results also revealed that individuals who were highly rejection sensitive were among the most likely to participate even though they did not believe protest activity to be an efficient way to bring about social change. This supports the notion that some individuals tend to engage in protest activity for purely social reasons. However it is still unclear whether these individuals are driven by an approach motivation to establish new social bonds or an avoidance motivation to escape possible social rejection.