While it can claim some historical depth, essentially Lubuskie is a new province in western Poland that emerged from the local government reforms of 1999. It is thus located in a part of the country taken over by Poland from Germany in 1945, which as a consequence experienced a complete replacement of populations (Polish for German) at that time. This makes the province a useful case in which to study the emergence of a new identity over time. At present its identity is not as strong as in the case of its neighbours like Silesia and Wielkopolska, though it is being cultivated where possible by some local bureaucrats and politicians. It is argued that it is nonetheless justified to study such cases in order to determine and account for differences in the strength of regional identities in the same nationstate. The wider framework is regional identities within Europe as part of the process of European integration and its articulation with nation-states in the EU.
The Case of Lubuskie, Poland
Robert A. Parkin
First Estonian Feminist Lilli Suburg (1841–1923) as an Autobiographer
The first Estonian feminist, journalist, writer, and teacher Lilli Suburg (1841–1923) was an outstanding autobiographer who used accounts of her life as a part of her journalistic and literary practice. With the help of her autobiographical strategy she created her own textual space, which allowed her to assert the validity of her life experiences. Feminism was becoming increasingly widespread in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century and Suburg tried to introduce European ideas, including feminism, to the emerging Estonian intellectual audience. However, she did not find a receptive public for these ideas, owing to the conservatism of the local Baltic-German society and the Estonian national awakening. This article explores the autobiographical writings of Lilli Suburg and analyzes them in historical context, demonstrating how these texts enabled Suburg to create a unique textual space in which she gradually defined and legitimated her feminism.
Having inherited high and increasing interest rates on public debt from its predecessor, the Monti government had to bring these yields down to sustainable levels and to push through the reforms that the Berlusconi government had abandoned. This article discusses the strategies that the Monti government employed to achieve these goals. It also analyzes the government?s international actions and finds that its international credibility was a subtle but significant asset. Although it did not necessarily acquire greater flexibility in its dealings with Italy?s international partners, the Monti government engaged in negotiations with the German government and the European Central Bank in an effort to help to defuse the Italian (and European) government debt crisis.
British Commerce and Trade in Siberia in the Early Twentieth Century
This article looks at the prospects and the reality of British commercial activity in Siberia in the early twentieth century, before the outbreak of World War I, and is based on contemporary comments by travelers, businessmen, and commercial agents. Contemporaries agreed that the dynamic Siberian economy opened up opportunities for British exports and trade. British firms, however, lagged behind commercial rivals, in particular in Germany, and the United States. The article explores the reasons for this and also looks at the subjects of the British Empire who went to Siberia and the conditions under which they worked. The article demonstrates the vibrancy of Siberian economic development in this period and the active participation of Western powers in this process.
A Portrait, 1894–1930
Birgitta M. Ingemanson
Eleanor Lord Pray (1868-1954), an American woman from New England, lived in Vladivostok from mid-1894 through 1930, and wrote letters to her friends and family in other parts of the world almost daily. She truthfully described her everyday life, scenes from the city and its surroundings, and the extraordinary historic events that occurred there. This Collection of more than 2,000 extant letters, illustrated with hundreds of photos from Mrs. Pray's albums, offers unique information about Old Vladivostok, its people and traditions, and contributes greatly to uncovering some of the history of the city's early bourgeoisie of Russian, German, Scandinavian, and American merchants, consuls, and officers. The Eleanor L. Pray Collection is owned by Patricia D. Silver of Sarasota, Florida.
Fieldpaths Towards an Eco-anthropology
Arguably, anthropologists have studied the relationship of ‘culture’ and ‘nature’ for a long time and from a broad range of perspectives. The close thematic connections between anthropology and ecology reach back well beyond Ernst Haeckel’s postulate of ecology as a distinct science in the 1860s. Social historians (e.g. Brunner 1956) have noted how the ‘old European economy’ of ‘the whole house’, where ‘culture’ and ‘nature’ were regarded as closely intertwined, has been replaced in the course of industrialisation and modernisation by increasing perceptual separation and indeed juxtaposition of the two spheres. In a sense, the culmination of that movement may be seen, for example, in the progressive ousting of an integrative Heimatkunde – the holistic study of localities and regions – from the German school curriculum since the 1960s.
International Women's Day, the First Decade
Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild
The year 2010 was the centennial of Clara Zetkin's proposal for an annual women's holiday, which became known as International Women's Day, and 2011 was the centennial of its first celebrations. The first ten years of the holiday's existence were a particularly tumultuous time in world history, with the advent of World War I, revolutionary upheavals in some of the major combatant countries, and the demise of the German, Habsburg, Ottoman, and Russian empires. During this time, International Women's Day celebrations quickly gained great popularity, and in 1917 sparked the February Russian Revolution. This article focuses on the development of the holiday from its U.S. and Western European origins and goal of women's suff rage, to its role in empowering Russian women to spark a revolution, and its re-branding as a Soviet communist celebration. Special attention is paid to the roles of two prominent international socialist women leaders, Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai, in shaping the holiday's evolution.
Andrzej Rozwadowski, Brian Donahoe, Olga M. Cooke, Dmitri Funk, Iraida Nam, Christopher Hill, Tero Mustonen, Brad Paige, and David G. Anderson
Peter Jordan, Landscape and Culture in Northern Eurasia Andrzej Rozwadowski
Andrew Wiget and Olga Balalaeva, Khanty: People of the Taiga: Surviving the 20th Century Brian Donahoe
Andrew A. Gentes, trans., Russia's Penal Colony in the Far East: A Translation of Vlas Doroshevich's “Sakhalin” Olga M. Cooke
Erich Kasten, Cultures and landscapes of the North-East Asia: 250 years of Russian-German research in ecology and culture of indigenous peoples of Kamchatka Dmitri Funk and Iraida Nam
Mertin I. Eren, Hunter-Gatherer Behavior: Human Response during the Younger Dryas Christopher Hill
Anna A. Sirina, Katanga Evenkis in the 20th Century and the Ordering of Their Life-World; Olga Ulturgasheva, Narrating the Future in Siberia: Childhood, Adolescence and Autobiography among the Eveny Tero Mustonen
Charles Hartley, G. Bike Yazicioglu, and Adam T. Smith, The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions Brad Paige
Benedict J. Colombi and James F. Brooks, Keystone Nations: Indigenous Peoples and Salmon across the North Pacific David G. Anderson
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Sex Education and Sex Reform in First Republic Czech Print Media
This article explores attitudes towards sex and sexuality in First Republic Czechoslovakia (1918–1938), focusing on the urban Czech population. By looking at articles, advertisements and references to sex and sexuality in Czech periodicals from 1920 to 1935, it shows that inter-war Czechoslovaks were enthusiastic participants in closely linked discourses about hygiene, physical culture, sex education, birth control and sex reform, and provides evidence that Czech discourse about sex and sexuality was al- most always – apart from erotica and pornography – closely tied to discourse about health, hygiene and social reform. The article also shows how inter-war Czechoslovaks participated in the struggle for sexual minority rights. By exploring these discourses, this article helps place Czech ideas about sexuality within the larger framework of European ideas about sexuality, especially in relation to the German discourses with which Czech writers and activists were in constant dialogue.
Joseph Beuys in the Field
This paper will argue that revisiting the ideas and practice of the twentieth-century German artist Joseph Beuys is germane to contemporary discussions of place and human ecology in anthropology. Through an exploration of work undertaken by the artist and a discussion of the influence of Goethe on his practice, it will explore the way in which Beuys' approach to art was informed by a set of methodologies which saw the inner life of the human being and the outer world with which she or he engages as profoundly linked in both physical and psychic terms. Beuys' work points, the author will suggest, to the potential for a myth of fieldwork and a communication of its results that places the anthropologist within a constantly changing world of matter that she or he shapes and transforms and is, in turn, transformed by.