In the past decade there has been a shift of focus from individual archaeological sites to an approach that incorporates the dynamic interplay of land, climate, society, economy, ritual and technical innovation. A growing understanding of past climates and environments, coupled with the use of satellite technology and other means of remote sensing, has opened new avenues of interpretation. Classic problems, such as the origins and spread of agrarian societies, have benefited from an array of new scientific methods, and there is increasing attention to social and ritual aspects of society.
Kinship in the Middle East
Soheila Shahshahani and Soraya Tremayne
The study of kinship remains central to anthropology and to understanding the social world in which we live. Although key debates on kinship have stayed embedded in anthropological studies, the impact of global changes affecting marriage, divorce, family structure, and the inevitable consequences of the interaction between biotechnologies and social and cultural practices have all served to bring back kinship into anthropological discourse in a forceful way. As a result, there is a tendency to move away from the distinction between the biological and social aspects of kinship and to focus on emerging forms of relatedness and their broader implications. In such an approach, relatedness is viewed as a process that is fluid and mutable, and that is constructed through active human agency. It expands to include changing gender relations, new family forms and the outcome of assisted reproductive technologies.
Pour une lecture du fait guerrier en Afghanistan à partir d'images filmées
Agnès Devictor and Camille Perréand
Based on an analysis of films shot by Youssouf Janessar, the cameraman of the Afghan commander Ahmad Shah Massoud, this article presents a study of the Afghan wars between 1982 and 1992. It considers the act of filming in its anthropological meaning and the ethnographic dimension as translated by these images. The article first deals with the link between Massoud and recorded images and, more widely, his relationship with modern technology in combat. It then proposes an anthropological analysis of fighters based on a reading of these images, which record traces of behaviour, comportment and appearance - a repository of non-verbal communication between fighters - and which represent very rich material for the anthropological study of war.
The Challenge for Europe
Máiréad Nic Craith
Heritage has traditionally been associated with material objects, but recent conventions have emphasized the significance of intangible culture heritage. This article advocates a holistic approach towards the concept and considers key challenges for Europe's heritage at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Reflecting on the notion of 'European', it considers the question of how one defines European heritage and which European heritage is to be protected. It explores links between national and European conceptions of identity and heritage and queries issues of ownership, language and representation. A number of ethical issues are raised - such as the role of women in the transmission of heritage and the implications of information technology for copywriting traditional practices. The author also asks how one ensures that the process of globalisation facilitates rather than eliminates local cultural heritages? How does one enhance the local so that it becomes glocal and not obsolete?
Floor, Willem (2003), Agriculture in Qajar Iran (Washington, DC: Mage Publishers). 692 pp.
Scholz, Fred (2002), Nomadism and Colonialism: A Hundred Years of Baluchistan 1872–1972, trans. Hugh Van Skyhawk (Oxford: Oxford University Press). xviii–328 pages, bibliography, figures, index.
Tapper, Richard and McLachlan, Keith (2003) (eds.), Technology, Tradition and Survival: Aspects of Material Culture in the Middle East and Central Asia (London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass) (History and Society in the Islamic World Series). 256 pages, 49 pl. h.-t., illustrations, maps, index. Published with the assistance of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), the British Institute for Persian Studies (BIPS) and the Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies (CNMES) at the London School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).
youth clothing or are worn by supporters of traditions and alternative fashion. The book can be divided into two parts. In the first part, Ol’ga Danglová acquaints readers with the history of the printing of fabrics. She describes how this technology
Emerging Kinship in a Changing Middle East
traditional hierarchy of power among the kin group; and the considerable penetration of global technologies – the past decade has also witnessed a relentless and dramatic increase in conflicts, wars, revolutions, uprisings, migrations and displacements in the
‘Cosmetic’ Investments in the Body
techniques, practices and technologies do people use to achieve that shape? By reviewing literature about cosmetic interventions aimed at producing a European understanding of value in bodies, this essay inquires into the colonial legacy and how it is
Utilisation of Working Animals (and Women) in Ancient Mesopotamia and Modern Africa
our deliberations, when assessing the possible political and social factors underlying the material remains of the past. Certainly account should be taken of influences such as political frameworks then and now, modern technologies and the past and
changes in the traditional society moving forward fast, aided by technology in the aftermath of war. There are hundreds of articles on the subject of women-headed households in different academic journals of Iran, which point to the importance of this