Characterized by a highly complex and segmented decision-making structure and strong conventions and values, German higher education was long considered impervious to significant change. In recent years, several initiatives demonstrate both the resistance to, and prospects for, profound reforms. This article focuses on two such endeavors: the establishment of junior professorships and the introduction of general tuition fees. Both policies aim to break ironclad traditions—in the first case, the entry qualification for professorships; in the second, the principle of free education. The discourse surrounding the establishment of these initiatives has emphasized performance and competition. The new advocacy coalitions and their opponents, however, use different frames to interpret these terms. The battle of ideas and policies regarding a reconfigured academic hierarchy has been shaped by stakeholders in the scientific community, with political actors taking a secondary role. On the other hand, the discourse surrounding the introduction of tuition fees reverses this order, with political actors taking the prominent role. Discourse patterns and involvement of political parties matter. The analysis reveals the competing rhetorical and policy frames that support policy diversity. Policy change adds to, rather than eliminates, existing structures.
Helga A. Welsh
Authority, Closure, and the Endings of Troilus and Cressida in Text and Performance
Barbara Bowen’s perceptive reading revels in the relationship between Troilus’ final speeches and Pandarus’ final appearance, but many critics, bibliographers, and editors have argued that the ending printed in both Q (1609) and F (1623) may be only one of the ways the play ended. There is a long history of speculation that Troilus and Cressida was revised, and that the ending may have been altered, perhaps for different audiences. The theories of editors and bibliographers can be read alongside the play’s theatre history, revealing how the heroism and scurrility that Bowen describes have been emphasised and diminished in different literary, theatrical, and social climates. I am particularly interested in exploring the play’s multiple and disruptive movements of closure, and the ways in which changing notions of an ‘authentic Shakespeare’ have been evoked in the critical responses to originary and modern texts and performances.
The Genesis of Sartre’s Theatrical Career in Writings to, with, and by Beauvoir
Dennis A. Gilbert
attract him to a career in dramatic writing and theatrical performance? This vast subject, the genesis of Sartre’s theatrical career, exceeds the limitations of this article. In the pages that follow, I focus only on the most revealing sources of this
Taking Different Worlds Seriously
representational idiom. Instead, we need, in a performative idiom, to think about practice, performance, and agency—doing things—and I want to sketch out briefly how the analysis goes before returning to the question of different worlds. Scientists, I argue, are
Barbara Robertson and Mark J. Flowers
must be verified before drawing conclusions about the impact of the aid on the student's performance. Furthermore, class sections normally tend not to be distributed by themselves. A wider cross-section of students is necessary to draw such conclusions
AfD Women's Origin Stories
, gender may be understood as a performance. Judith Butler, Goffman, Candace West and Don Zimmerman, and others argue that individuals perform or “do” gender, reaffirming social constructs of gender through their interactions with one another. 33 This
Seamus Heaney and Tony Harrison (Back) at School
While literature may possibly be, as Derrida claims, ‘the institution which allows one to say everything’, school most certainly is not. As an institution, it is bound up with the political system of a society and inevitably subjected to educational policy. Literature, however, is taught at school, and, as some would claim, institutionalised and canonised thereby. School education, of course, is also a topic within autobiographical poetry that conjures up the days at school or university as part of a reconstructed growth of a poet’s mind. In an unprecendented opening of the school system, the post-war period following the Education Act in 1944 witnessed the introduction of scholarships for marginalised social groups in Britain and campaigns for institutions of higher education in the colonies. Many of the now well-established and internationally renowned poets in English went to school then. Perhaps surprisingly, their class-room poems are not so much about great opportunities and hard-won laurels as about the pressures on, and depressions of, those recently welcomed to a system that distributes social and cultural power. In concentrating on two well-known poems that were both published in the 1970s, Tony Harrison’s ‘Them & [uz]’ and Seamus Heaney’s ‘The Ministry of Fear’, I want to trace the entanglement of poetry and school education from the 1950s, the period reconstructed in the poems, until today. Although critical of the British educational system and its attitude to poetry, these poems are now taught at school. A consideration of the performative dimension of these poems will yield the criteria with which to describe their classroom career.
For some time now, attempts to reconstruct and re-mark the history of how interiority and the subjectivity to which that belongs emerged in Western culture have been making critical headlines. According to the proponents of this explicitly anti-humanist and anti-essentialist master narrative, that moment can be precisely located at the time of Shakespeare. Using Hamlet as his example, Francis Barker argues that bourgeois subjectivity comes into being only in the late seventeenth century; challenging idealist conceptions of literary culture and history, Jonathan Dollimore promises to deliver Shakespeare and his contemporaries from the misrepresentations of essentialist humanism. Similarly, Catherine Belsey claims that to search for characters’ ‘imaginary interiority’ is to map modernist notions of a unified, coherent humanist subject onto early modern texts. According to Margareta de Grazia, those texts do represent motives for interiority, or, as Raymond Williams has it, conditions of possibility for occupying such a personal space; but, as Peter Stallybrass maintains, the early modern subject encountered in Shakespeare’s texts is not an ‘individual’.ho Although that subject may indeed possess a ‘self’ (in the sense of being distinct from others), he does not have an ‘identity’ – a term that is also absent from Shakespeare’s texts and that does not appear, in the sense of denoting individuality, until 1638. In short, we have met the early modern subject, and he is not us.
The ability to conduct academic research is partly a function of the time
available for it, especially relative to teaching and administrative obligations.
1 For the last decade, both the number of students enrolled at German
universities and the number of full-time professors has remained at
about the same level. The number of wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter, doctorallevel
research assistants, however, has increased by more than half, and
the number of Lehrbeauftragte, those on temporary teaching contracts, has
increased by three-quarters. There is thus no lack of personnel to help
professors meet teaching or administrative obligations, or to assist on
research projects.2 Nevertheless, and particularly in the humanities, German
professors complain about their teaching burdens, about added
administrative tasks their universities place upon them,3 and about what
they see as new pressures to bring in funding or produce results.4 That the
Historikertag, the biannual meeting of German historians, had “Boundaries”
(2010) and “Resources—Conflicts” (2012) as the overarching themes
for its last two meetings seems in keeping with this sentiment.
Performance, Hybridity and Resistance
ARTIST EXPOSÉ Peaches (Merrill Nisker)