Marx has been misread primarily because the politicians who, in his name, powered communist regimes popularized a tendentious interpretation of his works. In particular, they justified authoritarianism and violence by emphasizing the “dictatorship of the proletariat” and the “animal theory of revolution” where the poor get poorer and eventually erupt in a cataclysmic fashion. Instead, if attention had been paid to Marx’s seminal concept—“socially necessary labor”—and his exhortation to win the minds of the working classes by participating in popular movements of the subalterns everywhere, then a new appreciation would emerge of the corpus of Marx’s contributions. As that has not quite happened, scholars like Weber, Arendt, and Friedman have misinterpreted Marx, rather willfully, and shot into prominence with their first book-length publications.
The makings of Weber, Arendt, and Friedman
The Case of Female Suitcase Traders
This article assesses the social factors that influence the health of female suitcase traders and the health risks related to the trade as an occupation. The findings indicate that it is imperative to study the health of small-scale traders within the framework of occupational health. Suitcase trade is widespread in both developing countries and the post-Soviet region, and recognising it as an occupation makes it possible to research related health issues. This in turn can lead to the discovery of specific patterns regarding health risks and the treatment of typical illnesses of suitcase traders, thus facilitating comparison with other occupational health research. The article examines existing barriers to health for women in Central Asia and summarises the quality and content of the treatment that is available.
Stephen J. Silvia
This article investigates the progress that the eastern German economy has made since unification in two areas: unemployment and output. It finds that unemployment has remained persistently higher in eastern than in western Germany and output levels have remained extremely uniform across the eastern states. Keynesian and neoclassical economists have proposed differing explanations for the endurance of high unemployment in the East. The latter have the more convincing argument, which blames high initial wages in eastern Germany for producing a labor "trap," but this account is not without flaws. The best explanation for output uniformity is the content and volume of public investment in eastern Germany since unification. Public policy in the years immediately following unification is in large part responsible for both outcomes. Economic modeling indicates that wage subsidies targeted at low-income employment would be the most effective means to break the current high-unemployment equilibrium in eastern Germany, but the political barriers to adopting such a policy are just as formidable as they were a decade ago, when such a policy was briefly considered.
Black Boys, the Urban Neighborhood Context, and Educational Aspirations
Studies investigating disadvantaged urban neighborhoods often focus on students’ academic underperformance, ways they succumb to environmental stressors, involvement in illicit activities, and adherence to street-oriented behaviors and culture. This article focuses on the ways a select group of Black boys in the US successfully navigated structural impediments and interpersonal challenges during their secondary school years and eventually matriculated to college. Drawing on interview data, the article examines students’ sense-making and the importance of their peers in navigating the urban environment: (1) interactions with people in the neighborhood and (2) strategies to negotiate the urban environment context in pursuit of their educational aspirations. The students’ narratives highlight the benefits they assign to their peer relationships and collectivist efforts to support their educational goals.
Informalization and differential subsumption in Thailand’s garment sector
” to “real” subsumption of labor under capital. Operating under conditions of formal, but not yet real subsumption, the putting-out system of England’s early modern textile industry did not yet entail, Marx ( 1976: 1021) argued, a fully realized
On the Creation of New Urban Museumscapes in Hong Kong and Seoul
Driven by global economic and cultural competition, Asian megacities seek future-oriented local and global self-representation using cutting-edge museums of contemporary art. This article analyzes the embedding of two vanguard museum projects, the “Museum+” in Hong Kong, China, and the new Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Seoul, South Korea, into long-term urban planning strategies and concepts. In order to understand the intended purpose and process of how the new museums of contemporary art are devised as public spaces of cultural selfrepresentation and urban identity building, the study monitors the complete design process from the city government’s urban and institutional planning strategies over architectural design to the museum’s mission statement and collection strategy. By comparatively tracing the museum projects in Hong Kong and Seoul, the evidence shows that, although they share a common global cities agenda, their pathways of urban place-making and community-building vary greatly. These variations depend on the historical role and current geopolitical repositioning of each city.
Finding the time for social reproduction theory
Jan Newberry and Rachel Rosen
through the quickened tempo of debt servicing for the achievement of social reproduction. Back to social reproductive theory again Capital's fundamental contradiction between its drive for immediate profit and the need to regenerate labor power has been
Del desarrollo y la democracia frente a la violación de los derechos de las mujeres y niñas Juárez, México, 2008–2013
Alfredo Limas Hernández
*Full article is in Spanish
Este texto aborda la situación de inseguridad y violencia, sobre todo hacia las mujeres, que persisten en Ciudad Juárez (México) así como la situación de victimización (i.e. desapariciones) que padecen las mujeres de cierto per fil social. Amplios sectores de la población juarense sobreviven con escasos derechos y garantías dentro de un marco de violencia sociopolítica en los últimos veinte años, en particular, entre 2008–2012, periodo de “la guerra contra la delincuencia y el narcotrá fico”, del sexenio del Gobierno Federal de Felipe Calderón Hinojosa (2006–2012). Ante una emergente fractura del estado de derecho, con políticas que restringen el bienestar, se incrementa la inseguridad y la victimización para ciertas categorías culturales vulnerables. Dentro de este contexto valga preguntar ¿qué significa ese contexto de violencia social y política para la construcción de la ciudadanía y de la cultura de derechos humanos y de su vigencia?
includes the emergence of ‘free universities’ that operate independently from the state, capital and dominant theories of knowledge and higher education. Since the turn of the twenty-first century, these projects have been posited as alternatives to both
Culture Theory in US Death Penalty Mitigation
capital defense bar has established certain lines of inquiry to be indispensable. The heinous sorts of killings that merit a capital charge often will be best mitigated by evidence of the client’s impairment—particularly of the neurological