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Joseph Webster

In Gamrie, an Aberdeenshire fishing village home to 700 people and six millennialist Protestant churches, global warming is more than just a 'hoax': it is a demonic conspiracy that threatens to bring about the ruin of the entire human race. Such a certainty was rendered intelligible to local Christians by viewing it through the lens of dispensationalist theology brought to the village by the Plymouth Brethren. In a play on Weberian notions of disenchantment, I argue that whereas Gamrie's Christians rejected global warming as a false eschatology, and environmentalism as a false salvationist religion, supporters of the climate change agenda viewed global warming as an apocalyptic reality and environmentalism as providing salvific redemption. Both rhetorics - each engaged in a search for 'signs of the end times' - are thus millenarian.

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Heritage or hate?

A pedagogical guide to the confederate flag in post-race America

Cameron D. Lippard

per cent saw it as representing racism. By 2015, Jones (2015) reported 54 per cent of Americans saw the flag as about Southern pride whereas 34 per cent saw it as representing racism. However, there are important differences based on the race of

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Meals in Foreign Parts

Food in Writing by Nineteenth-Century British Travellers to the Balkans

Ludmilla Kostova

The interest in the narrative and ideological parameters of travel writing,1 which has been an important feature of the Western European and North American academic contexts over the last fifteen years or so, is undoubtedly a reflection of the unique position of the genre as an area thematising and problematising cultural difference and otherness and as a meeting point of varying discourses of gender, race/ethnicity, class, power, domination and counter-domination. Travel narratives have played a key role in current theoretical debates in postcolonial studies, feminism, cultural studies and comparative literature. To my mind, a considerable number of the critical texts that they have engendered in those fields, appear to privilege a particular analytical strategy focusing on the interpretation of what Laura E. Ciolkowski has termed ‘gender-coded visual power’ (1998: 343). This power operates through the travelling subject’s gaze, which is intent upon the construction of the relatively stationary object(s) of his/her observation. By persistently privileging the analysis of the gaze critics have tended to ignore and even erase other aspects of the complex processes of mediation and negotiation in which travellers and ‘travellees’ are involved.

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Nick Pearce, Robert Burroughs, Liza Oliver, Susan Parman, Ulrich Ufer, Peter D. Finlay, and Rohrbough

David Blamey (ed.), Here, There, Elsewhere: Dialogues on Location and Mobility. 272 pp. London: Open Editions, 2002. ISBN 0-949-00413-8, £14.99 a22.50 (paper). Review by Nick Pearce

Roger Casement (Séamus Ó Siocháin and Michael O’Sulllivan, eds), The Eyes of Another Race – Roger Casement’s Congo Report and 1903 Diary. ix and 350 pp. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2003. ISBN: 1-900621-98-3, £39.95 (hardback) ISBN 1-900621-99-1 £18.95 (paper). Review by Robert Burroughs

Brian Dolan, Exploring European Frontiers: British Tavellers in the Age of Enlightenment. ix + 232 pp. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2000. ISBN 0-333-78987-3, £80.00 (hardback). Review by Liza Oliver

Rod Edmond and Vanessa Smith (eds), Islands in History and Representation. xiii and 234 pp. London: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-28666-2, £60.00 (hardback). Review by Susan Parman

Ina-Maria Greverus, Anthropologisch Reisen. 395 pp. Hamburg: Lit Verlag, 2002. ISBN: 3-8258-5720-4, a12.90. Review by Ulrich Ufer

Glenn Hooper, The Tourist’s Gaze: Travellers to Ireland, 1800–2000. xxxii + 268 pp. Cork: Cork University Press, 2001. ISBN 1-85918-277-1, £45.09/a57.25 (hardback), ISBN 1-85918-323-9, £18.07/a22.95 (paperback). Review by Peter D. Finlay

Michael E. Zega and John E. Gruber, Travel by Train: The American Railroad Poster, 1870–1950. xi + 140 pp. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN: 0-253-34153-3, £43.00 (hardback). Review by Malcolm Rohrbough

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Sarah Lyon, Mary Kelaita, Celia Lowe, L. Jen Shaffer, Christopher R. Cox, Constanza Ocampo-Raeder, James Finley, Barbara Rose Johnston, Amelia Fiske, Alex Blanchette, Julie A. Shepherd-Powell, Peter W. Stahl, Christopher Jarrett, and Amber R. Huff

ALKON, Alison Hope, Black, White, and Green: Farmers Markets, Race, and the Green Economy

CORMIER, Loretta, The Ten-Thousand Year Fever: Rethinking Human and Wild-Primate Malarias

DOBSON, Andrew, Kezia BARKER, and Sarah TAYLOR, Biosecurity: The Sociopolitics of Invasive Species and Infectious Disease

FOWLER, Cynthia, Ignition Stories: Indigenous Fire Ecology in the Indo-Australian Monsoon Zone

HUBER, Matthew T., Lifeblood: Oil, Freedom, and the Forces of Capital

KANE, Stephanie, Where the Rivers Meet the Sea: The Political Ecology of Water

KILCUP, Karen, Fallen Forests: Emotion, Embodiment, and Ethics in American Women's Environmental Writing, 1781–1924

KRUPAR, Shiloh R., Hot Spotter's Report: Military Fables of Toxic Waste

MORTON, Timothy, Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World

NAGY, Kelsi, and Phillip David JOHNSON II, eds., Trash Animals: How We Live with Nature's Filthy, Feral, Invasive, and Unwanted Species

REECE, Erik, and James J. KRUPA, The Embattled Wilderness: The Natural and Human History of Robinson Forest and the Fight for Its Future

ROSTAIN, Stéphen, Islands in the Rainforest: Landscape Management in Pre-Columbian Amazonia

SIEBERT, Stephen F., The Nature and Culture of Rattan: Reflections on Vanishing Life in the Forests of Southeast Asia

SODIKOFF, Genese Marie, Forest and Labor in Madagascar: From Colonial Concession to Global Biosphere

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Analyzing African Formations

Multi-national Corporations, Non-capitalist Relations, and 'Mothers of the Community'

Caroline Ifeka

The West gazes hard at the continent it is has exploited for so long. Reflecting Western discourses of Africa as that ‘dark other’, texts use epithets immersed in preconceptions of Africa’s inequality: differences of race and religion, with Western ‘civilization’ standing for, and justifying, unequal power relations of apparent antiquity. Nineteenth-century Royal Geographical Society audiences, enthusiastic supporters of Britain’s growing empire and overseas Christian missions, learned from distinguished travelers about ‘the slave trade’, ‘ju-ju’, ‘paganism and devil worship’, ‘Mecca’, ‘the import-export trade’, ‘white traders’, and ‘black middlemen’. Favorite twentieth-century discourses included ‘black nationalism’, ‘weak states’ and ‘African indebtedness’, ‘corrupt government’, ‘ruthless multi-national oil companies’, ‘environmental pollution’, and ‘poverty’. Twenty-first-century researchers write of ‘endemic violence’ coalescing around inter-state international borders or intra-state ethnic boundaries; ethnic militants fight for ‘ethnic sovereignties’, jostling to wrest from the nation-state customary rights of ownership and control over ‘our god-given’ oil, clashing with giant multi-national corporations that lease from nation-state governments—not oil-producing communities claiming customary ownership—vast blocks of swamp, desert, and sea under which lies ‘black gold’ (Ifeka 2000: 452; cf. Hertz 2001: 194ff.).

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Eyewitness Accounts during the Putumayo Rubber Boom

Manuel Antonio Mesones Muro—the Madman of the Marañon River, Cárlos Oyague y Calderón—the State Engineer, and Roger Casement—Not of the Real World Humanitarian

Rupert J. M. Medd and Hélène Guyot

Between 1870 and 1915 Peru experienced a rubber-boom, extending into the Putumayo River region in 1893. This huge region of Amazonian forests was controlled by the Peruvian Amazon Company (P. A. Co.). Although Peruvian, they had British company directors and a British-Barbadian workforce. Their methods of extraction generated unimaginable degrees of human and ecological violence. Roger Casement, a British diplomat, was sent on a harrowing mission to investigate these allegations made by travelers. His Amazon Journal takes precedence; however, Peruvians also responded to the situation, reporting to the Geographical Society of Lima. Included are two forgotten yet influential Peruvian explorers: the geographer Manuel Antonio Mesones Muro and the engineer Cárlos Oyague y Calderón. By highlighting some of the early debates that circulated between Europe and Latin America on the natural resources and people of the Amazon forests, the focus is to draw out textual examples of perceptions on race, environment, and early consumer responsibility. Supported by coloniality/modernity theories, it also asks whether this form of travel writing was functioning as a resistance literature to imperialism for the time. Thus, this study investigates alternative readings that might also inform twenty-first-century scholars and activists as they articulate environmentalist and even social and ecological positions.

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Borders and justice

A postscript

Mary Bosworth

's lived experience but also its relationship to our knowledge of them. As an early career researcher and new arrival to New York City, I learned about race and policing in Philippe Bourgois's (1996) In Search of Respect . Anthropology, as this

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Pierre Du Plessis and Sanal Mohan

) analyses of race, this ethnography explores the question of what constitutes a species, with a particular focus on races of maize (Part 1: Species Interiors), and then the multiplicity of life-forms found in botanical gardens (Part 2: Knowing Plants

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Zora Kostadinova and Chakad Ojani

along race in the field among the jihadi and Bosnian soldiers. What starts as a battle in solidarity begins to split through the good/bad Muslim dichotomy and that of Arab/European Muslim. Bosnians are uneasy about the overly conservative religious