French military justice constituted an "exceptional jurisdiction": a legal subsystem designed to serve not justice but discipline, and carefully insulated from external political intervention. Reformers had attempted to ameliorate its harshness. But when the Clemenceau government elected to abort further reforms in 1907-09, it strengthened the case of radicals who insisted that military justice was unreformable by the bourgeois state. Radicals sought not to improve the quality of military justice, but to expose its linkage to the class struggle (i.e., to portray the Army and its courts as devourers of proletarian youth). When Émile Rousset alleged that Albert Aernoult, his fellow prisoner in an Algerian compagnie de discipline, had been beaten to death by guards, he created an opportunity for radicals to advance that agenda. The Aernoult-Rousset Affair (1909-12) did breach the political insularity of French military justice. Yet the Affair's political and juridical outcomes were ambiguous.
Military Justice on Trial in Belle Époque France
pour un état des lieux de mémoire
In reviewing various commemorations that highlighted the year 2005 in France, this article points out the major evolutions of memory visible primarily in the press and media coverage of these events. If public memory remains as highly charged and polemical as it was in the 1980s and 1990s, attention is clearly turning away from the Occupation and Vichy to focus more on Europe and on France's colonial past, as we see not only in the ceremonies celebrating the "liberation" of Auschwitz, the Allied victory over Nazi Germany, and the dedication of the Mémorial de la Shoah, but also in the many articles devoted to Russian and Eastern European experiences of the war, as well as to the bloody postwar repressions of colonial uprisings in Algeria and Madagascar. Now that racial and ethnic tensions are exacerbating an increasingly fragmented public memory, the work of history is more urgent than ever.
Kader was there on 17 October 1961—at the Madeleine metro station at about 6:30 in the evening. He was also there at the Palais des Sports three days after the demonstration, and for 33 days at the police department’s Identification Center at Vincennes. In 1981, when Kader gave this testimony to Libération, he was still “there”—in France—living in the same worker’s dormitory that had been his home in 1961. After being held in a camp in Algeria, he had returned to the country where he felt humiliated and where he had been tortured, because his family had been killed and his political allies exiled. He was not bitter. “We were at war.” Who is this “we”?
Mark McKinney and Farid Boudjellal
Farid Boudjellal (b. 1953), a French cartoonist of Algerian and Armenian heritage, outlines his approach to comics. He discusses important inspirations and influences, including cartoonists from France (Gébé), Italy (Hugo Pratt) and the United States (Milton Caniff). He speaks of themes that are important to his work, especially temporality, a multiplicity of characters, dreams and fantasy. Boudjellal also distinguishes his comics from autobiography, a genre that he shuns, and critiques the sociological reductionism often found in the critical reception of his comics. He discusses his artistic techniques, including black-and-white line drawing, watercolor, and interconnected speech balloons. His interview provides an overview of his career and his ongoing projects in comics, which he situates against the general evolution of comics in France from the 1960s up to the present.
Lloyd Kramer The Post-Revolutionary Self: Politics and Psyche in France, 1750-1850 by Jan Goldstein
J.P. Daughton Divided Houses: Religion and Gender in Modern France by Caroline Ford
Joshua Cole The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France by Todd Shepard
Richard J. Golsan A Holocaust Controversy: The Treblinka Affair in Postwar France by Samuel Moyn
Goulven Boudic Intellectuels Communistes: Essai sur l’obéissance politique, « La Nouvelle critique », 1967-1980 by Frédérique Matonti
Michael Christofferson The Specter of Democracy by Dick Howard
Françoise Gollain Une sécurité d’emploi ou de formation by Paul Boccara
Benjamin Moodie Le deuxième âge de l’émancipation: La société, les femmes et l’emploi by Dominique Méda and Hélène Périvier
At the time of his death, the sociologist of immigration Abdelmalek Sayad (1933-1998) was putting the final touches on a collection of his principal articles—since published under the title La Double Absence.1 The publication of this collection provides, I think, a good occasion for introducing Sayad to the anglophone public, which to date has had almost no exposure to his work. In France, Sayad’s sociology has been essential not only to the study of Algerian immigration, but to the understanding of migration as a “fait social total,” a total social fact, which reveals the anthropological and political foundations of contemporary societies. The introduction of this exceptional work to American specialists of French studies is timely, moreover, because immigration and more recently, colonization have been among the most dynamic areas of research in the field in the past few years.
Harki Collective Memories, 2003–2010
Laura Jeanne Sims
memory narratives and fracture the republican ideal of a single shared history. 8 For historians such as Benjamin Stora, Eric Savarese, and Pascal Blanchard, the colonial past, including the Algerian War, has constituted a particularly divisive
Michael Connors Jackman and Adeel Khan
Clarke, A. and D. Haraway (eds) ( 2018 ) Making Kin Not Population: Reconceiving Generations ( Chicago : Prickly Paradigm Press ) ISBN: 9780996635561 . Ben Hounet, Y. (ed) ( 2018 ), Law and Property in Algeria: Anthropological Perspectives
Eric Jennings, Hanna Diamond, Constance Pâris de Bollardière, and Jessica Lynne Pearson
participation in wars of decolonization, in Madagascar, Indochina, and Algeria. Nuance characterizes Ginio’s approach: the question of unequal pensions for European and African veterans is placed in context, as is the Thiaroye tragedy of 1944. Overall
Dana Currier Penser la famille au XIXe siècle (1789-1870) by Claudie Bernard
Emmanuelle Saada The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars by Gary Wilder
Amelia H. Lyons Policing Paris: The Origins of Modern Immigration Control between the Wars by Clifford Rosenberg
Gisèle Sapiro Robes noires et années sombres: Avocats et magistrats en résistance pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale by Liora Israël
Nicole Rudolph Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after the Second World War by Richard Ivan Jobs
Donald Reid Francis Jeanson: A Dissident Intellectual from the French Resistance to the Algerian War by Marie-Pierre Ulloa
Arthur Goldhammer Modernisation et progressisme: Fin d’une époque, 1968-1981 by Pierre Grémion
Philippe Steiner Inherited Wealth by Jens Beckert
Mary Dewhurst Lewis Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves: Islam, the State, and Public Space by John R. Bowen
Kimberly J. Morgan Differential Diagnoses: A Comparative History of Health Care Problems and Solutions in the United States and France by Paul V. Dutton