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Nick Pearce, Robert Burroughs, Liza Oliver, Susan Parman, Ulrich Ufer, Peter D. Finlay, and Rohrbough

David Blamey (ed.), Here, There, Elsewhere: Dialogues on Location and Mobility. 272 pp. London: Open Editions, 2002. ISBN 0-949-00413-8, £14.99 a22.50 (paper). Review by Nick Pearce

Roger Casement (Séamus Ó Siocháin and Michael O’Sulllivan, eds), The Eyes of Another Race – Roger Casement’s Congo Report and 1903 Diary. ix and 350 pp. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2003. ISBN: 1-900621-98-3, £39.95 (hardback) ISBN 1-900621-99-1 £18.95 (paper). Review by Robert Burroughs

Brian Dolan, Exploring European Frontiers: British Tavellers in the Age of Enlightenment. ix + 232 pp. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2000. ISBN 0-333-78987-3, £80.00 (hardback). Review by Liza Oliver

Rod Edmond and Vanessa Smith (eds), Islands in History and Representation. xiii and 234 pp. London: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-28666-2, £60.00 (hardback). Review by Susan Parman

Ina-Maria Greverus, Anthropologisch Reisen. 395 pp. Hamburg: Lit Verlag, 2002. ISBN: 3-8258-5720-4, a12.90. Review by Ulrich Ufer

Glenn Hooper, The Tourist’s Gaze: Travellers to Ireland, 1800–2000. xxxii + 268 pp. Cork: Cork University Press, 2001. ISBN 1-85918-277-1, £45.09/a57.25 (hardback), ISBN 1-85918-323-9, £18.07/a22.95 (paperback). Review by Peter D. Finlay

Michael E. Zega and John E. Gruber, Travel by Train: The American Railroad Poster, 1870–1950. xi + 140 pp. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN: 0-253-34153-3, £43.00 (hardback). Review by Malcolm Rohrbough

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Wilfried van der Will

After considering the functions of capital cities this article argues that culture both as creative activity and as living heritage of customs and architectural assemblies plays a central role in the self-perception of present-day Berlin. The agents—public and private—that interact in the conception and execution of decisive initiatives in the remake of the city form an extensive cultural policy establishment. They derive their legitimation from regional and federal constitutions and from their command of attention in the public discourse. Berlin's claimed status as the most obvious German metropolis is not self-evident. Within the nation it is neither the center of finance, nor the media, nor the supreme courts. In Germany there are other towns and metropolitan regions with a similarly rich infrastructure that can compete at least nationally. But Berlin, building on Enlightenment traditions, is making a plausible effort in regaining its cosmopolitanism. Despite a host of problems, it is now surpassing the ethnic and cultural diversity that was lost in the years of Nazi dictatorship. Can it maintain its attraction for creative talent, both cultural and technological, in view of accelerating social divisions and gentrification?

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Tourist versus Traveler Revisited

Back to the Eighteenth Century

Giuli Liebman Parrinello

Although a great deal has been written about the constantly debated relationship between tourist and traveler (tourism and travel) with often quite different ideological approaches being adopted, nevertheless consensus still seems to be a distant reality. In this article, the reasons for this apparent theoretical impasse are explored by tracing its historical origins. Most scholars agree that tourism as a modern phenomenon appeared on the horizon of Western European society in the second half of the eighteenth century, thereby allowing a broad historical and dualistic conceptualization of tourism, which added to its dynamic characteristic (travel) a notion of temporary sojourn including leisure (villeggiatura, spas, etc.). The background of an articulated Enlightenment revealed not only a new anthropological curiosity about the Other, but also features like conspicuous consumption and eudaemonism, which played and continue to exert a fundamental role in the tourism of yesterday and today. Furthermore, the emerging dialectic between the new social actor (the tourist) and the movement (tourism) can currently be read as a substantial and dramatic “figuration“ (Elias 1978a), encompassing unforeseen consequences within the framework of communication.

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Javier Fernández Sebastián

The aim of this article is to give an account of the main uses of the concept of Civilization in Spain, in political and intellectual debates, from its origins in the mid-eighteenth century to the present. In the Spanish case, the evolution of this notion is initially marked by the special circumstances of a country relatively backward in comparison with some of the principal "enlightened" European countries, but at the same time an Imperial monarchy, possessing very extensive territories inhabited by people considered as yet "uncivilized". Furthermore, the long struggles in the medieval Iberian peninsula between Christians and Muslims also had a strong influence on certain characteristics of the political uses of the concept of civilization in modern Spain. Recently, the impact of the supposed "Clash of Civilizations" has added a new twist to the range of meanings of the word, employed more and more frequently in a cultural-religious sense. So, between the Enlightenment and post-modernity, the notion of civilization would have moved away from the sphere of Progress to a very different conceptual space: that of Identity.

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Françoise Gollain

The last four years have seen the rise of a movement on the French radical left positing a fundamental conflict between economic growth and ecological sustainability and calling for a reversal of growth (décroissance) against the current consensus around the concept of sustainable development. This challenge to the growth imperative and, more widely, of the ideology of progress, represents a return to the explicitly antiproductivist approaches that emerged in the early 1970s with the rise of radical political ecology. This article charts the birth of the décroissance movement, which is comprised of two components: anticonsumerist and antidevelopment. It also contrasts the movement with other closely-related ideological elements of the French antiglobalization and anticapitalist movements, elements that belong to the dominant, mainly Marxist tradition, whose anticapitalist struggle builds on the legacy of the Enlightenment period. The article concludes that, by placing antieconomicist and antiutilitarian thought drawn from social sciences on the agenda of the French radical Left, the décroissance movement could potentially generate a major paradigm shift founded on a critical evaluation of the heritage of modernity.

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Chris Hann

The concept of civilization has not prospered in socio-cultural anthropology. Its origins lie in Enlightenment France, where it was used in both singular and plural forms, the universalist singular eventually prevailing in the decades leading up to the Revolution. Our discipline came to prefer pluralizing counter-currents of this universalism such as that associated with Johann Gottfried Herder. The key term in German was Kultur, though it was not widely used in the plural until the twentieth century, while Zivilisation referred to technological progress. For Edward Burnett Tylor in England, culture and civilization were synonymous. But even before the demise of the European colonial empires, most socio-cultural anthropologists were uncomfortable with the normative connotations of the latter. They preferred to carry out ethnographic studies within paradigms that represented the world as composed of more or less bounded societies with their more or less incommensurable cultures. With the abandonment of evolutionist paradigms, analyses of the emergence of civilization from primitive cultures were rendered redundant and repugnant.

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Strategies of Governance

Michel Foucault on Power

Roger Deacon

How and why is it that we in the West, in our arduous and incessant search for truth, have also built into and around ourselves intricate and powerful systems intended to manage all that we know and do? This, arguably, was the key problem to which Foucault applied himself. Central to his critical, historical ontology of Western, and especially Enlightenment, reason is an investigation of the constitutive relations between the operation of power relations, the production of knowledge, and ways of relating ethically to oneself and others. This article examines Foucault’s account of the relations of power which are said to underpin contemporary thought and to regulate and subject modern individuals. Contrary to the belief that Foucault’s conception of power is dogmatic and all-encompassing, leaving no room for progressive resistance or change and flowing over into the realm of theory such that truth itself becomes questionable, it is argued here that Foucault offers us an analysis of relations of power as ‘strategies of governance’ which depend for their operation on the existence of free subjects capable not only of resistance but of positively producing effects of truth in reality.

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Edited by Maryon McDonald

confronted here with some deleterious manifestations of post-Enlightenment modernity, but through elements of post-humanism and new materialisms, in a powerful language that takes us on a tour of various ‘machines of replication’ and a patchy Anthropocene

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Ronald Stade

—have done their utmost to prove that volition is nothing but a fabrication, European intellectual and social movements like Renaissance humanism, the Enlightenment, nineteenth-century liberalism, and twentieth-century existentialism have argued that the

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Beyond Metaphor

Corporeal Sociability and the Language of Commerce in Eighteenth-Century Britain and France

Joseph D. Bryan

power and elevat ing the embodied individual as the locus of social, economic, and political order. 3 The Enlightenment has generally been credited with the creation of “modern society,” whether in terms of the modern “social imaginary” or the positive