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New Mobilities, Spaces, and Ideas to Market

European Travel Writers and the Making of a Genre—Comment

Steven D. Spalding

capitalist, and, like his equator-crossing predecessors, seems prepared to internalize certain moments of his journey as encounters with a universal sublime. In Reimann-Dawe’s intriguing examples, familiar ways of thinking about African space and experience

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Majed Aladylah

It is important to stress that Arab women writers have produced a new kaleidoscope of narrative fiction in English. They focus on a variety of representations with respect to identity, dislocation, cultural hybridity and belonging. Moreover they have tried to construct a stable subjectivity and a space of belonging. These narratives are now dispersed and relocated by Arab women diasporic novelists such as Hala Alyan. This article will examine Hala Alyan’s 2017 novel, Salt Houses. This debut novel has amalgamated different narrative experimentations and techniques, and how polyphonic spaces have dislocated the conventional act of narration and relocated it in tandem with the non-homogeneity of the Arab world itself.

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Liam Leonard

This article examines the nature and trajectory of various conservationist campaigns in Ireland that have focused on the integrity of the landscape and the protection of public space. “Issue histories” of disputes over Ireland's natural and built heritage such as protests at the historic Viking site at Woodquay in Dublin and at the ancient site of the High Kings at Tara are used to show how conservation advocacy is part of a much wider movement that contests dominant notions of development. This paper conceptualizes “rural sentiment” as a reflexive form of conservation, which has shaped many heritage campaigns in a changing Ireland where rapid economic growth and unchecked property development have threatened the integrity of many rural and urban environments.

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Ashley Lebner

the eviction of the Afro-Brazilian population while rendering their “culture” and “religion” national heritage. Collins, faced with the task of doing social science in a context where even the right to occupy space was given or taken away in light of

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Vassiliki Markidou

The present essay attempts to shed light on the gender politics of Tobias Smollett's novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker in relation to its spatial politics, and argues that geographic space functions as a framework within which gender contextualises both urban and rural culture. Drawing primarily on Henri Lefebvre's seminal post-modernist study of space, the paper argues that space is a social production that gives rise to representational effects. Chief among them is gender, and the essay analyses the way Smollett invokes and then subverts the traditional literary and cultural binary between country/femininity and city/masculinity. It thus advances a deconstruction of a familiar binary opposition between geographic and sexual stereotypes. Thus, the ultimate 'traveller' of Smollett's picaresque novel is none other than the reader who is invited to explore his/her identity by analysing Smollett's presentation of the formation of subjectivity through the intersections of space and gender as well as his ambiguous stance towards his contemporary status quo.

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Emily Anderson

with others in digital spaces. International development and humanitarian aid organizations, like UNICEF, have historically used old media tools to advance their agendas. Policy actors have expanded their engagement with new media tools to promote

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Hospitality as Diplomacy in Post-Cosmopolitan Urban Spaces

Dervish Lodges and Sofra-Diplomacy in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina

David Henig

everyday diplomacy in the post-cosmopolitan urban space. Re-scaling Diplomatic Sites If diplomacy refers to the forms and processes of mediated exchange between polities ( Neumann 2013: 7 ), an ethnography of everyday diplomacy would extend and nuance such

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Recapturing Space

Production of Intersubjectivity among the Central Kalahari San

Akira Takada

The |Gui and ||Gana, two groups of San, have made extensive use of the central part of the Kalahari Desert, though they were recently resettled outside their previous living area. Since relocation, their rich ecological knowledge has not served them well. Even in this situation, they still show a keen perception regarding the ground conditions: for avoiding obstacles as well as for assessing animal signs in the bushveld. This study explores how they deployed these kinds of knowledge by cleverly using various resources in the environment. My analysis shows that the skills required to find a path between hurdles on the land are closely associated with those used to perceive animal signs. I have documented, in detail, interactions among my informants; and shown how they arrive at a mutual understanding about the land and its signs, and that the presence of outsiders within these interactions encourages the |Gui and ||Gana to formulate their knowledge more explicitly. In these ways, folk knowledge becomes “known” to various participants. Their prediction becomes inseparable from their memory; their selves become involved with the land.

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Contested Spaces

Bicycle Lanes in Urban Europe, 1900-1995

Ruth Oldenziel and Adri Albert de la Bruhèze

Today most cities emphasize the construction of separate bicycle lanes as a sure path toward sustainable urban mobility. Historical evidence shows a singular focus on building bicycle lanes without embedding them into a broader bicycle culture and politics is far too narrow. Bicycle lanes were never neutral, but contested from the start. Based on comparative research of cycling history covering nine European cities in four countries, the article shows the crucial role representations of bicycles play in policymakers' and experts' planning for the future. In debating the regulation of urban traffic flows, urban-planning professionals projected separate lanes to control rather than to facilitate working- class, mass-scale bicycling. Significantly, cycling organizations opposed the lanes, while experts like traffic engineers and urban planners framed automobility as the inevitable modern future. Only by the 1970s did bicycle lanes enter the debate as safe and sustainable solutions when grass-roots cyclists' activists campaigned for them. The up and downs of bicycle lanes show the importance of encouraging everyday utility cycling by involving diverse social groups.

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Andrea Sabbadini

Film studies inspired by the theories of British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott are scanty. Although this may be partly explained by Winnicott's own somewhat unenthusiastic attitude toward cinema, it should be fruitful to approach film, in both its form and content, by taking into consideration the relevance of some of his ideas. These include in particular the concepts of mirroring and transitional space, especially in relation to the idea of a bridge space connecting external reality to its filmed representation, as well as the latter to reality as perceived by the viewer's gaze. Winnicott's developmental model of mental processes could prove useful for an understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of cinema, as well as for providing original interpretations of individual films.