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Common Democracy

Political Representation beyond Representative Democracy

Alexandros Kioupkiolis

. Absolute Democracy beyond Representation? On the other side of the debate, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri (2004: 240–241, 247, 255) uncover a certain promise of absolute democracy that is embedded from the outset in modern democracy—the “rule of everyone

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Andrea Brandolini

Between 2007 and 2013, real per capita income and net wealth of Italian households fell by 13 and 10 percent, respectively. Unprecedented in the country's post-war record by size and duration, this deterioration of household finances was accompanied by more muted changes in inequality and relative poverty. Only absolute measures of consumption and income insufficiency surged. The more serious worsening of personal economic conditions for the young than for adults and, especially, the elderly is a disturbing legacy of the recessions of 2008–2009 and 2011–2013.

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Alessandro Chiaramonte

The Italian general elections held in February 2013 ended up in stalemate. The center-left coalition won the absolute majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies but not in the Senate, making it impossible to form any homogeneous governing majority. In the end, the only available opstion to support the new cabinet was a “grand coalition” of parties from different political sides. This chapter analyzes this destabilizing outcome, taking into account a number of factors: the success of a new anti-establishment party, the Five Star Movement, which has become the largest party in the country; the significant loss of votes by the center-left and especially by the center-right, compared to the previous elections of 2008; the peculiar nature and functioning of the electoral system; the extraordinary level of vote shifts; the “new” electoral geography; the crisis of the bipolar setting; and the transformation of the party system.

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Davide Martelli

The Appendix delineates the economic, social, and political picture

that stands behind the events analyzed in this volume. It contains

three sections. The first, which includes Tables A1-A7, presents

historical data regarding the population: gender; age category;

labor-force, examined according to occupations and conflict; births

and marriages; various forms of criminality; important indicators

of the economy and public finance, such as domestic product and

debt. The second section is dedicated to the various electoral contests

that occurred during the year; regional, provincial, communal,

and referenda. Tables B1-B5 contain absolute numbers of votes

and the percentages obtained by the political parties in the regional

elections and the composition of the electoral coalitions in the

regions. Tables B6-B8 report the data on turnout for mayoral elections

as well as for contests for control of the capital seats of communes.

Tables B9 and B10 report the same data for elections for

provincial presidents. Finally, B11 presents the results of referenda.

The last section is dedicated to institutional data: Table C1 includes

the ministers in the Amato government.

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Avery Poole

significant political diversity among ASEAN member states (see table 1 ); they comprise an absolute monarchy (Brunei Darussalam); socialist/communist one-party states (Laos and Vietnam); dominant-party parliamentary systems (Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore and

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Peter Herrmann

and more serious in everyday life and the clash of civilizations emerges for many and on many levels as matter of daily realities, literally the solution is only the absolute deconstruction—as such the absolute negation of the solution. Change

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The Will of the People?

Carl Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on a Key Question in Democratic Theory

Samuel Salzborn

large. However, it is not possible to calculate the most effective and sensible ratio in absolute terms, but only relative ones. The reason for this is that this phenomenon is qualitative and thus a social one, and cannot be resolved by simple

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Sociocultural Change in Hungary

A Politico-Anthropological Approach

Ferenc Bódi and Ralitsa Savova

Christian idea of the state and considered the multilingualism and coexistence of different ethnic and religious groups as a great advantage. 2 The state could be found in Europe's absolute and relative center. The relative center of Europe can be found in

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Social Quality

Regaining Political Economy

Peter Herrmann

, pleasures, productive forces etc., created through the universal exchange? The full development of human mastery over the forces of nature—those of so-called nature as well as humanity’s own nature? The absolute working-out of his creative potentialities

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Jan Ifversen

history, they have to begin and end somewhere. Every narrative has a beginning and an ending. Historians will normally escape mythical ideas of absolute beginnings and relativize endings. For them there is no end to history. Particular narratives might be