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Mirjam de Bruijn

It is after all clear that fear has definitively changed camps and that the regime of Idriss Déby experiences much more fear than the Android youth that we are. 1 This quotation is from a 16 February 2016 post by “Fils-de-Maina” (a Chadian internet

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Creative Encounters

African Trade and Chinese Oil Production in Western Chad

Nikolaus Schareika

geographically close but do not qualify as part of oil’s technological zone. Taking into account these considerations, I contend that it ought to be quite difficult for Chadians to connect to and thereby profit from the oil projects that are set up in their

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The Devil’s Money

A Multi-level Approach to Acceleration and Turbulence in Oil-Producing Southern Chad

Andrea Behrends and Remadji Hoinathy

This article takes a multi-level approach to analyzing the effects of oil production in southern Chad. A multi-level analysis combines the international level of policy making in regard to oil production in Chad with the national level of land

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Andrea Behrends

The area around the border of Sudan and Chad, where Darfur lies, has been an unimportant and unknown backwater throughout history. Today, however, Darfur is all over the international press. Everybody knows about the grim war there. There is no oil currently in production in Darfur. However, there is oil in the south of neighboring Chad and in Southern Sudan, and there might be oil in Darfur. This article considers a case of fighting for oil when there is no oil yet. It takes into account the role of local actors doing the fighting, that is, the army, rebels, and militias; national actors such as the Sudanese and Chadian governments; and international actors, such as multinational oil companies, the United States, China, and the United Nations. It explains how oil can have disintegrative consequences even when it is still only a rumor about a future possibility.

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The Traveling Model That Would Not Travel

Oil, Empire, and Patrimonialism in Contemporary Chad

Stephen P. Reyna

This article concerns a type of change involving implementation of 'traveling models'—procedural cultural plans of how to do some-thing done somewhere elsewhere. Specifically, it concerns the World Bank's traveling model of oil revenue distribution in support of Chadian development. It finds that this model is failing and that dystopia is developing in its stead. A contrasting explanation, which examines the contradictions and consequences of Chadian patrimonialism and US imperialism, is proposed to account for this state of affairs. Finally, the analysis is shown to have implications for conceptualizing patrimonialism and planning development.

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Introduction

Understanding Experiences and Decisions in Situations of Enduring Hardship in Africa

Mirjam de Bruijn and Jonna Both

Ethnographic Encounters In the Guéra region in central Chad, people experienced a long period of civil war and ecological problems when rebels occupied the countryside for various times from 1965 to 1990. This concurred with long

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An Author Meets His Critics

Around Manuel A. Vásquez’s “More Than Belief: A Materialist Theory of Religion”

Manuel A. Vásquez, Abby Day, Lionel Obadia, David Chidester, and Chad E. Seales

Manuel Vásquez begins his book by describing university courses that frustrate his students by being text-based and divorced from real life. He rightly concludes that analyzing sacred texts does not alone explain lived religion and complex issues such as globalization, transnationalism, and hybrid identities. He is writing from a Religious Studies perspective that, as he says, sometimes suffers from an overly theological bias. Moves within the discipline to abandon ‘religion’ for something as equally diverse and difficult to pin down as ‘faith’ do not, he argues, take us any further, particularly because religion really matters to many people and therefore cannot be dismissed just because we scholars find it problematic. To adopt an approach that explores how religion is understood and lived by the people who practice it is, I agree, the most important task for people studying religion. If this serves as a wake-up call for people who still study religion as something, in Vásquez’s words, of angels rather than of people, then the book has done a great job.

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Ashley Lebner

Collins, John F. 2015. Revolt of the saints: Memory and redemption in the twilight of Brazilian racial democracy . Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Seales, Chad E. 2013. The secular spectacle: Performing religion in a Southern town . Oxford

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Taxes for Independence

Rejecting a Fiscal Model of Reciprocity in Peri-urban Bolivia

Miranda Sheild Johansson

and undesirable (pers. comm., April 2018). Both Roitman (2007) and Guano (2010) have shown that in their field sites in Chad and Italy, respectively, not paying a commercial license as a trader was an act of resistance to a state that the traders

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Christopher Hill, Anna Bara, David Dettmann, Joseph Livesey, and Falk Huettmann

, Keith Hart, and Janet Roitman—yet the pertinence of the vocabularies these sources offer could be extended much further. Engaging with Roitman’s work on the pluralization of regulatory authority in the Chad Basin, to take one of his cases, would oblige