Combining history, theology, and the cognitive study of religion, this article offers a new interpretation of the origins and purpose of the fourth-century Trinitarian theology known as Homoianism, suggesting that it aimed to create an “entry-level“ Christianity as a first step in gradually easing polytheists into Christianity. It highlights the polemical nature of Homoianism's characterization as “Arianism,“ and examines the beliefs of Homoianism's proponents, including those of Ulfila, the “apostle of the Goths.“ This article suggests that the Homoian view of the Trinity attempted to map non-Christian intuitions of divinity onto the Christian doctrine of God. It points to Homoianism's Western origins on the Roman Empire's strategically important Danubian frontier, arguing that a Homoian creed should be seen not only in the wider context of the “Arian Controversy,“ but also as part of attempts to ensure the peaceful Romanization of the Goths.
Creed and Cognition in the Fourth Century
The Seventeenth-Century Mexican Primordial Titles
Through the analysis of two exemplary sources pertaining to the genre of the Nahua primordial titles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the aim of this essay is to contribute further to our understanding of how this distinct Nahua colonial genre can be used for the study of Nahua social memory during Spanish colonial times. More precisely, what this present essay endeavors to identify the subtextual and supra-textual layers in these two sources. Second, it aims to highlight the replicated memory formulas applied in these specific texts; and third, to analyze the role of Christianity in these memory plots. By way of these three aspects, the task of this present study is to demonstrate that customs of remembrance, deeply rooted in the practice of a collective social memory were still cherished and kept vibrant during the mid colonial period.
An Overdue Tribute
Dale K. Van Kley
Robert R. Palmer wrote his first book, Catholics and Unbelievers in Eighteenth Century France, under the influence of his mentor at Cornell University, Carl L. Becker. Whereas Becker had claimed that the "enlightened" French philosophes were more indebted to Christianity than they recognized, Palmer argued that French Catholic apologists in the eighteenth century were also more "enlightened" than they knew. The two theses are complementary sides of Becker's wider point that beneath an intellectual debate in the public sphere there lay certain shared assumptions that make discussion possible, or what Alfred Whitehead had called a common "climate of opinion." Devoted to the subsequent historiography of Palmer's subject, this article argues that although research has since vindicated aspects of Palmer's portrait of French "enlightened" Jesuits, it has also altered Palmer's picture of French Jansenists as being globally unenlightened. This development in historiography enlarges Palmer's own notion of a "climate of opinion," while challenging the coherence of recent notions of a single "Catholic Enlightenment."
The Transformation of Suicide in Western Thought
Catholic doctrine. There are no strictures against suicide in the Old or New Testaments, 20 and, given the emphasis of early Christianity on martyrdom and self-sacrifice, one is hardly surprised that some theologians prior and contemporaneous to Augustine
Women, Gender, Law, and Remembering Shona Kelly Wray
Linda E. Mitchell
shaped, for example, the nineteenth century’s view of the past as populated by public males and private females, and energized by the confident triumphalism of Western Christianity, be maintained. Organizations such as the Society for Medieval Feminist
How Medieval Ideas of Time Influenced the Development of Mechanical Reproduction of Texts and Images
. Gregory of Nyssa's intense analysis of eternality in his Adversus Eunomium became, like Augustine's, an authoritative conception of eternity in medieval Latin Christianity. 16 But a fateful ambivalence as to the nature if eternity existed in the neo
Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums criticized Friedrich Wilhelm Carové's (1789–1852) view of humanism as a higher principle that promised emancipation from religion, thereby conflating Judaism and Christianity. 36 The paper not only presented Carové
Anton Jansson, Kai Vogelsang, and Nele Kuhlmann
and Religion . In this work, Peter Harrison picks up a theme he has explored in many earlier variations, and naturally his earlier studies on the role of Christianity in the establishment of modern science in the West are important sources for the
of the Byzantine Empire followed their own customs and traditions. However, the state organization, the Hellenic education that became the cultural foundation of Byzantium, and the spread of Christianity created new conditions of coexistence and
Rossi (1822-1894), whose La Roma sotteranea Christiana was published in Rome in 1864, revealed that the majority of the burials were subsequent to the reign of Emperor Constantine, who had legalized Christianity in 313. 96 If there were still numerous