, humando , itself derived from humus , soil. 1 Humans, then, would above all be people of the soil, who bury their dead. They come from the earth and will ever return to it. Enlightenment thinkers, however, among them Vico himself, would eventually upend
Bryan L. Moore
Early science fiction (SF) is noted for, among other things, its conservatism and lack of interest in ecology. Brian Stableford, a well-known SF writer and critic, writes that "there are very few early stories with ecological themes" (1993, 395). This article shows that, in fact, many early SF works (those written between the Enlightenment and World War II) employ ecological themes, especially as applied to questioning our anthropocentrism. These works suggest that humans are but one species among many, that we are not the end of nature/history, that the natural world may be better off without us, and, in some cases, that humanity is fated to go extinct, the result of its own hubris. Such views are undoubtedly pessimistic, yet these works may also be read as warnings for humans to seek a more humble view of ourselves as members of what Aldo Leopold calls the land community.
Cosmopolitanism has become a rediscovered conceptual frontier within the social sciences. It has emerged in the space for relational thinking about contemporary movements of people and ideas beyond old societal boundaries, as an alternative to the homogenizing implications carried by globalization. It forefronts new cross-territorial contexts of encounter attending to samenesses and differences among people, places, and the nonhuman, presenting new kinds of translocal issues for anthropologists of the environment. While cosmopolitanism draws historically on aspects of Enlightenment universalist rationalism, current applications of the term forefront an empathy and respect for other people’s cultures and values. This is frequently drawn into a distinction between “normative” and “cultural” cosmopolitanisms. The first Kantian sense involves a context-transcendent level of ethical principles with general validity, while the second is about taking cognizance of difference and invokes some positive tolerance of multiplicity and appreciation of others. In both cases there is a sense of a projected “ethical horizon” (Werbner 2008).
Measuring the Future with Quantified Heat
Scott W. Schwartz
). Quite the opposite, I am suggesting that we very much pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge, and not for the sake of growing capital. It is important to remember that the Enlightenment was bought ( Poovey 2010 ). Enlightenment knowledge producers
Brendon M. H. Larson
experiential recognition that humans to a large degree suffer ( dukkha ) because we treat things as permanent when everything is impermanent ( anicca ). But Buddhists further state that enlightenment requires more than this wisdom. In an analogy with the two
Where Do the Twain Meet?
C. S. A. (Kris) van Koppen
characterize human interests, Klintman brings in the distinction between Apollonian and Dionysian interests. Apollonian refers, largely, to traits that are typical for enlightenment thinking: being conscious, explicit, and self-constrained, and making balanced
Constanza Parra and Casey Walsh
nature, which give shape to the socio-ecological plexus from which societies materialize. The nature-culture divide that emerged from the Enlightenment ignores this diversity of cosmologies, cultures, and people inhabiting this planet, and forms the
Tracing a Transdisciplinary Focal Concept
Melissa M. Parks
The age of Enlightenment marked a discursive, ideological division between humans and their ecologies, with a hierarchical organization that awarded highest value to humans ( Foucault 2005 ; Horkheimer and Adorno 1972 ; Plumwood 2002 ). Dominant
Human-Centrism, Posthumanism, and AI
Nandita Biswas Mellamphy
, “ethical AI” would need to more explicitly consider diverse critically and speculatively oriented approaches to fully explore the limitations of human-centrism. As Debashish Banerji and Makarand Parajape warn, post-Enlightenment modernity has found
Richard Widick and John Foran
global governance is a call out to everyone in general, but no one in particular, just as Warner (2002) described—please participate in self-governance. The utopian philosophical content inscribed here is democratic universality, built on Enlightenment