In response to climate change, sustainability has become the keyword for exploring alternative ways of cultivation in different parts of the world. However, local farmers still understand these sustainable alternatives in terms of soil nutrients and their absorption by crops. I examine how sugar beet farmers in western Poland read the condition of crops and field conditions, and accordingly try to cope with agricultural droughts in spring and early summer. While they maintain a practical position that is extremely inductivist, they simultaneously allow for symbolic, indexical meanings. These meanings of farming practices are multilayered and evoke relationships, local histories, and traditions. The farmers accept the reality of climate change only hesitantly, and their aspiration of gaining recognition in Europe has only started to penetrate the multilayered indexical meanings of farming practices.
Toward a Crop Ontology among Sugar Beet Farmers in Western Poland
Dong Ju Kim
Unfairness as Critical to Energy Transitions
possible unwanted implications and unexpected outcomes, and in particular to increasing social inequities. Ambitious policies such as those being currently adopted in the European Union to tackle climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and
Climate Change Policy in a Globalizing World
The cap-and-trade system introduced by the European Union (EU) in order to comply with carbon emissions reduction targets under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol (1997) has in some instances led to the opposite outcome of the one intended. In fact, the ambitious energy and climate change policy adopted by the EU-known as the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)-has led to carbon leakage and in some instances to relocation or a shi in production of energy-intensive manufacturing to parts of the world where carbon reduction commitments are not in effect. EU business organizations state that corporate strategies are now directed toward expanding production overseas and reducing manufacturing capacity in the Union due to its carbon constraints. As the EU has been “going-it-alone“ with mixed success in terms of complying with the Kyoto Protocol's binding emissions reduction targets, the net outcome of the ETS market-based climate change policy is more rather than less global CO2 emissions.
Sabine Weiland, Vivien Weiss, and John Turnpenny
Ecological challenges are becoming more and more complex, as are their effects on nature and society and the actions to address them. Calls for a more sustainable development to address these challenges and to mitigate possible negative future impacts are not unproblematic, particularly due to the complexity, uncertainty, and long-term nature of possible consequences (Newig et al. 2008). Knowledge about the various impacts—be they ecological, economic, or social—policies might have is therefore pivotal. But the relationship between such knowledge and the myriad ways it may be used is particularly challenging. The example of policy impact assessment systems is a case in point. Recent years have seen an institutionalization of such systems for evaluating consequences of regulatory activities across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2008) and the European Union (CEC 2002). It is argued that, by utilizing scientific and other evidence, impact assessment has the potential to deliver more sustainable policies and to address large-scale global challenges.
Zoe Bray and Christian Thauer
European Union .” In Neoliberal European Governance and Beyond—The Contradictions and Limits of a Political Project , ed. Bastiaan Van Apeldoorn , Jan Drahokoupil , and Laura Horn , pp. 163 – 186 . London : Palgrave . Börzel , Tanja A. , and
Civil Society and Urban Agriculture in Europe
Mary P. Corcoran and Joëlle Salomon Cavin
the European Union (Art. 3, no. 1 of the Lisbon Treaty), but how we define well-being has to be linked to wider social, political, and environmental contexts of sustainability. In practice, most cross-national comparisons have been based almost
Attila Tóth, Barbora Duží, Jan Vávra, Ján Supuka, Mária Bihuňová, Denisa Halajová, Stanislav Martinát, and Eva Nováková
/2016 and 001SPU-4/2017 and VEGA research project no. 1/0044/17. The team of authors from The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geonics would like to thank the European Union for supporting their research through the Horizon 2020 project Inspiration
Anna Scolobig, Luigi Pellizzoni, and Chiara Bianchizza
consequence, the community’s perception of risk is rather low. A project, funded by the European Union’s INTERREG IIIB program and called “River Basin Agenda/Agenda Fluviale Alto Isarco,” concentrated on the upper part of the Isarco/Eisack and on its two
A Comparative Analysis of Urban Allotment Gardeners
Esther J. Veen and Sebastian Eiter
European Union in the research project Pure Hubs, and by Applied Plant Research, part of Wageningen University and Research Centre. NIBIO’s efforts were financially supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food through the Research Council of
Franco Ruzzenenti and Aleksandra Wagner
efficiency improvements. The definition of energy efficiency in Wikipedia (2018) , a prominent repository of collective knowledge, refers to the European Union definition: “the amount of energy saved by measuring or estimating consumption before implementing