, before the Iron Age and the Bronze Age, in the Neolithic Period when horticulture and the raising of food animals became bases of subsistence. 6 Matriliny in Europe from the Neolithic The earliest crop-raising cultures of northern Europe had been
The Close Relationship between the Historians Georges Lefebvre and Robert R. Palmer
For some twenty years the historians Georges Lefebvre and Robert R. Palmer maintained a "transatlantic friendship." Beginning with his translation of Lefebvre's Coming of the French Revolution, Palmer became a close friend of his French colleague, providing him with much-needed food, books, and information. In return Lefebvre published articles written by his American friend in his journal Annales historiques de la Révolution française as well as offered advice about his research. Thanks to their intellectual cooperation, the two advanced the study of the Revolution in their respective countries. Despite the considerable differences between their political outlooks—Lefebvre was a committed Marxist and Palmer was a liberal Democrat—the two men remained close friends until Lefebvre's death in 1959. Much of this article is based on the recently published correspondence of Lefebvre with Palmer.
Focusing on the gendarmerie forces of the three French Maghreb territories, this article explores the relationships between paramilitary policing, the collection of political intelligence, and the form and scale of collective violence in the French Empire between the wars, and considers what, if anything, was specifically colonial about these phenomena. I also assess the changing priorities in political policing as France's North African territories became more unstable and violent during the Depression. The gendarmeries were overstretched, under-resourced, and poorly integrated into the societies they monitored. With the creation of dedicated riot control units, intelligenceled political policing of rural communities and the agricultural economy fell away. By 1939 the North African gendarmeries knew more about organized trade unions, political parties, and other oppositional groups in the Maghreb's major towns, but they knew far less about what really drove mass protest and political violence: access to food, economic prosperity, rural markets, and labor conditions.
Potel et Chabot and the Franco-Russian Alliance
Willa Z. Silverman
Between 1893 and 1901, the Parisian traiteur Potel et Chabot catered a series of gala meals celebrating the recent Franco-Russian alliance, which was heralded in France as ending its diplomatic isolation following the Franco-Prussian War. The firm was well adapted to the particularities of the unlikely alliance between Tsarist Russia and republican France. On the one hand, it represented a tradition of French luxury production, including haute cuisine, that the Third Republic was eager to promote. On the other, echoing the Republic’s championing of scientific and technological progress, it relied on innovative transportation and food conservation technologies, which it deployed spectacularly during a 1900 banquet for over twenty-two thousand French mayors, a modern “mega-event.” Culinary discourse therefore signaled, and palliated concerns about, the improbable nature of the alliance at the same time as it revealed important changes taking place in the catering profession.
W. Brian Newsome
At the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Society for French Historical Studies, Willa Silverman and Kyri Claflin delivered presentations for a session entitled “Eating and Edifying: Perspectives on the Culinary History of the Third Republic.” Chaired by Janet Horne and with commentary by Paul Freedman, the panel offered innovative perspectives on French food history. Refined in response to Freedman’s suggestions, the contributions of Silverman and Claflin form the nucleus of the present forum. Michael Garval has joined Silverman and Claflin with an article of his own, and all three have benefited from the recommendations of two double-blind peer reviewers. The finished product—now two years in the making—is one that Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques is pleased to present to its readers.
The Power of Aesthetics in Women’s Cookbooks of the Belle Époque
speak specifically to them. The growing rate of women’s literacy in conjunction with the increasing salience of food in French culture made bourgeois women a promising market for published material on matters of the table. 5 Unlike the books directed at
relocating women for agricultural work to the dominions, citing training programs and plenty of opportunity for work as incentives for emigration. The late 1920s brought the Great Depression, and with rising prices for food and shipping, the need for
Mark S. Micale
, recreation, and companionship. Even regarding dogs, zoologists, pet food researchers, and various government agencies estimate that between 75 and 80 percent of the world canine population consists of free-ranging animals, both in rural and urban settings
Occupation, Liberation, and Reconstruction
George Robb and W. Brian Newsome
wartime topics to include the role of trade unions, strikes, labor shortages, women workers, rationing, food riots, and welfare policies. Historians no longer depicted wartime populations as abstract “masses” to be commanded by generals and politicians
’ annual food and clothing expenses. 9 Clearly, income from dowries formed an essential component to the family’s annual maintenance. Another way the dowry reshaped a husband’s wealth was his obligation to place a lien on enough of it to ensure its return