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Marie-France Gaunard-Anderson

*Full article is in French

English abstract: The Western Bug is one of the major border rivers in Central and Eastern Europe. It is the border between Poland and Ukraine and between Poland and Belarus, but at the same time it is one of the European Union's external borders. Despite this particular position and a certain number of political, legal, economic and human barriers, cross-border cooperation is improving in order to preserve water resources and promote better management. This article illustrates the main steps that lead to this cooperation and seeks to analyze whether it will be possible to set up common management of the Bug river basin.

Spanish abstract: El Bug occidental es uno de los ríos más importante en Europa central y oriental ya que sirve como límite entre Polonia y Ucrania, Polonia y Bielorusia, y como frontera externa a la Unión Europea. A pesar de esta situación particular y de los numerosos obstáculos que superar (políticos, jurídicos, económicos y humanos), la cooperación transfronteriza avanza para preservar el recurso agua y gestionar mejor la cuenca hidrográfica del Bug. El artículo presenta las principales etapas de esta cooperación, las medidas implementadas y, analizando los principales obstáculos al establecimiento de una política común, se interroga sobre la posibilidad de una gestión conjunta en la cuenca del Bug.

French abstract: Le Bug occidental est une des principales rivières frontières en Europe centrale et orientale. Elle sert non seulement de limite entre la Pologne et l'Ukraine, la Pologne et la Biélorussie, mais aussi de frontière externe à l'Union européenne. Malgré cette position particulière et les nombreux obstacles à surmonter (politique, juridique, économique et humain), la coopération transfrontalière progresse en vue de préserver la ressource en eau et de mieux gérer le bassin hydrographique du Bug. L'article présente les principales étapes de cette coopération, les moyens mis en œuvre et s'interroge sur la possibilité de gérer en commun le bassin du Bug en analysant les principaux obstacles à la mise en place d'une politique commune.

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Sexual imbalance in frontier communities

Siberia and New France to 1760

David N. Collins

Eminent historians in Canada have contended that pioneer societies often experience marked sexual imbalance in their early stages, having far fewer women than men. Certain Soviet historians tended to deny the existence of such a problem in Siberia. Since the two regions match each other in many ways (they enjoy similar geographical conditions, were settled by European peoples at roughly the same historical period for analogous purposes and were both governed in a centralised military/bureaucratic fashion), an investigation was undertaken into the reasons for Canadian and Soviet disagreements over the issue. Concentrating on the period of earliest exploration and settlement, before large-scale British immigration, the study predominantly compares Russian settlement in Siberia with its French equivalent in New France. Data from both sides make it quite clear that in the early stages there were fewer women than there were men, that the imbalances were overcome during a century or more in regions where agriculture was possible, but persisted in more northerly territories or unstable military zones. The sources from which women came were: interbreeding with indigenous peoples, government attempts to provide women for male settlers and rapid natural increase, with the probability that more female than male offspring survived. Clear parallels exist between the Siberian and Canadian experience, despite the cultural, economic and political differences. Soviet denials of an early imbalance seem to have been dictated by a need to prove that the USSR had never experienced colonialism of the type characteristic of the European empires.

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The Veil and Muslim Women in France

Religious and Political Aspects

Aref Abu-Rabia

The right of Muslim schoolgirls in France to wear the veil (hijab) raises questions concerning the meaning of the veil for Muslim women. The debate about Muslim dress codes and whether Islam belongs in Europe has become a critical issue. The debate that began about the veil in Islam has evolved into a large discussion about Islam itself: as a religion, the Islamic movement in France and the relationship between Islam and fundamentalism. The purpose of this article is to examine some definitions of the hijab and its meaning in the context of the Qur’an, and to analyse some of the understandings of the hijab, as articulated in the late twentieth century by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. It also explores the nature of Muslim reactions in France as well as their tensions with the surrounding society, as a result of the French ban on wearing the veil in public schools.

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The Anthropology of Literature in France

Birth and Becoming of a New Field of Studies

Laurent Sebastian Fournier and Jean-Marie Privat

In this article we present the ongoing theoretical discussions concerning the relations between anthropology and literature in France. We recall the historical relationship of a part of French anthropology and the world of literature. We then try to show how the anthropology of literature began by using the model of the anthropology of art, mainly concentrating on literary works as individual creations specific to the style or the cosmology of a given writer. We explore a new perspective on the analysis of the social and symbolic meanings of literary worlds, putting the emphasis on what is called ‘ethnocriticism’ in France. In order to understand better the influence of literature and literary motives on contemporary cultural practices, and to grasp the relation of literary works with the outside world and with everyday life, we propose to build up a comparative approach of literary works and rituals. Through different novels or other literary works, we address possible developments of contemporary anthropologies of literature in France.

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Cartographies of Communicability and the Anthropological Archive

Civil War Executions and the Harvard Irish Study

Brigittine French

This article traces ideological constructions of communication that enable powerful actors to determine what counts as silences, lies and surpluses in efficacious narratives about violence (Briggs 2007) in order to elucidate occlusions regarding legacies of the Civil War in the Irish Free State. It does so through a precise triangulation of multiple competing and overlapping narratives from unpublished fieldnotes, interviews, published ethnographies and other first-person accounts. The inquiry highlights social memories of the Irish Civil War that have been 'assumed, distorted, misunderstood, manipulated, underestimated, but most of all, ignored' (Dolan 2003: 2). The article argues that the excesses of the anthropological archive make the recuperation of a multiplicity of collective memories possible through a linguistic anthropological perspective that enumerates the kind of erasures at play in contentious memory-making moments, highlights polyvocality in metapragmatic discourse and tracks the gaps in entextualisation processes of historical narratives about political turmoil.

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'0 Feet Away'

The Queer Cartography of French Gay Men's Geo-social Media Use

Dominique Pierre Batiste

Why do gay men utilise geo-social media applications such as Grindr and Scruff? Social media scholarship describes technological mediations and changes to social space and communities; however, there are theoretical gaps concerning what geo-social technology means for gay men. I suggest that gay men's ability to see other gay men, via geo-social media, reveals the queer cartography of any geographical location. This re-mapping of social space proves the public sphere less heteronormative than purported, cultivates community between gay men who may initiate face-to-face contact utilising geo-locative technology, and allows gay men to interact with one another outside of specifically gay spaces. This research is based in Toulouse, France, and adds to scholarship concerning French gay men's resistance to heteronormativity. This research also holds global significance concerning subjugated communities' uses of geo-social technology in their resistance against dominant cultures.

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Bringing water challenges to target groups

French water utilities within the European legislative context

Céline Hervé-Bazin

English abstract: Water utilities have a strong potential for bringing key messages to water users, such as beneficiaries or non-state actors who will usually join together to manage water resources more effectively or based on participation of end-users. Water utilities have the possibility to convey local messages and to organize events that can generate changes. In this framework, they are important leaders for water communication. My main research interest is to consider the constraints to the communication of French water utilities on water resources in the European environment. I want to provide a theoretical concept to the communication of water utilities, analyze actual practices and case studies in order to highlight its main characteristics, and further study messages and the integration of targets groups throughout communication processes related to water issues. The main purpose of this publication is to analyze the specificities of communication by water utilities in France on water management resources, how they interact with their different target groups, and how they potentially contribute to the implementation of the European legislation. This article questions the way communication tools and strategies contribute to better implementation of EU water policies.

Spanish abstract: Las compañías de agua tienen un fuerte potencial para transmitir mensajes clave a los usuarios del agua, por ejemplo, a los beneficiarios o a los actores no estatales, quienes normalmente se unirán para gestionar los recursos hídricos de forma más eficaz o en base a la participación de los usuarios finales. Las compañías de agua tienen la posibilidad de transmitir mensajes locales y organizar eventos que pueden generar cambios. En este contexto, las compañías son importantes líderes para la comunicación sobre el agua. Mi mayor interés de investigación es considerar los límites que se ejercen sobre la comunicación de las compañías francesas en materia de gestión de recursos hídricos en el contexto europeo. Deseo proporcionar un concepto teórico a la comunicación sobre el agua y analizar las prácticas vigentes y casos de estudio con la finalidad de resaltar sus características más importantes, así como estudiar los mensajes y la integración de los públicos objetivo a lo largo de los procesos de comunicación sobre asuntos hídricos. El objetivo más importante de esta publicación es analizar las especificidades de la comunicación de las compañías de agua en Francia sobre el manejo de los recursos hídricos; cómo interactúan estas con los diferentes públicos objetivos y cómo contribuyen potencialmente a la implementación de la legislación europea. Este artículo cuestiona cómo las herramientas y estrategias de comunicación contribuyen a una mejor implementación de las políticas europeas sobre el agua.

French abstract: Les collectivités peuvent jouer un rôle clé pour transmettre des messages aux utilisateurs de l'eau, c'est-à-dire, l'ensemble des bénéficiaires ou la société civile qui peut être amené à participer à la gestion des ressources en eau. Les collectivités ont la capacité de sensibiliser à travers des outils locaux et d'organiser des événements qui peuvent changer les comportements des personnes touchées par un phénomène proche de chez eux. A ce titre, les collectivités peuvent devenir des porte-parole importants pour communiquer sur la préservation de l'eau. Notre recherche considère les limites qui s'exercent sur la communication des collectivités françaises en matière de gestion des ressources en eau dans le contexte législatif européen. Nous souhaitons éclairer la communication des collectivités à partir de l'analyse des pratiques actuelles et différentes études de cas afin d'en établir ses caractéristiques. L'enjeu est d'étudier l'adéquation entre les messages et les groupes cibles choisis au cours des différentes campagnes de communication dédiées aux défis de l'eau. Notre but est de détacher des éléments théoriques et si cette communication répond à des codes propres à toute communication locale sur l'eau. A partir de ces spécificités, nous étudierons dans quelle mesure les municipalités interagissent avec leurs publics cibles afin de faciliter l'application de la législation européenne à l'échelle locale. Nous analyserons en quoi ces outils et stratégies participent en effet, à la réalisation des directives européennes sur l'eau.

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Marc Abélès

What is anthropology in France about, what is its image, its impact? Where do we come from? Where are we going? Finding answers to these questions would require a whole book. However, in a more modest way, I would like to make a number of observations related to the recent history of the discipline – history that, as we shall see, is inseparable from the general socio-political context and the place that the discipline occupies today in the French intellectual landscape.

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Appalling Tehran

Translation of the French Serial Story and Its Effect on the Persian Serial Story

Manizheh Abdollahi and Ehya Amalsaleh

settings for these representations. This article examines an important example, the first Persian serial story published in Iran, Morteza Moshfeq-e Kazemi’s Tehran-e Makhuf ( Appalling Tehran ), and the influences on it of the translation of French serial

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Menachem Begin’s World Travels in the 1950s

A Road to Political Legitimacy

Ofira Gruweis-Kovalsky

, founder and leader of the newly formed Herut party, left Israel for a tour of Jewish communities in the United States and France with an entourage of senior party members. Begin’s decision to prioritize overseas travel at such a time marked the onset of