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The Veil and Muslim Women in France

Religious and Political Aspects

Aref Abu-Rabia

The right of Muslim schoolgirls in France to wear the veil (hijab) raises questions concerning the meaning of the veil for Muslim women. The debate about Muslim dress codes and whether Islam belongs in Europe has become a critical issue. The debate that began about the veil in Islam has evolved into a large discussion about Islam itself: as a religion, the Islamic movement in France and the relationship between Islam and fundamentalism. The purpose of this article is to examine some definitions of the hijab and its meaning in the context of the Qur’an, and to analyse some of the understandings of the hijab, as articulated in the late twentieth century by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. It also explores the nature of Muslim reactions in France as well as their tensions with the surrounding society, as a result of the French ban on wearing the veil in public schools.

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The Anthropology of Literature in France

Birth and Becoming of a New Field of Studies

Laurent Sebastian Fournier and Jean-Marie Privat

In this article we present the ongoing theoretical discussions concerning the relations between anthropology and literature in France. We recall the historical relationship of a part of French anthropology and the world of literature. We then try to show how the anthropology of literature began by using the model of the anthropology of art, mainly concentrating on literary works as individual creations specific to the style or the cosmology of a given writer. We explore a new perspective on the analysis of the social and symbolic meanings of literary worlds, putting the emphasis on what is called ‘ethnocriticism’ in France. In order to understand better the influence of literature and literary motives on contemporary cultural practices, and to grasp the relation of literary works with the outside world and with everyday life, we propose to build up a comparative approach of literary works and rituals. Through different novels or other literary works, we address possible developments of contemporary anthropologies of literature in France.

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Marie-France Gaunard-Anderson

*Full article is in French

English abstract: The Western Bug is one of the major border rivers in Central and Eastern Europe. It is the border between Poland and Ukraine and between Poland and Belarus, but at the same time it is one of the European Union's external borders. Despite this particular position and a certain number of political, legal, economic and human barriers, cross-border cooperation is improving in order to preserve water resources and promote better management. This article illustrates the main steps that lead to this cooperation and seeks to analyze whether it will be possible to set up common management of the Bug river basin.

Spanish abstract: El Bug occidental es uno de los ríos más importante en Europa central y oriental ya que sirve como límite entre Polonia y Ucrania, Polonia y Bielorusia, y como frontera externa a la Unión Europea. A pesar de esta situación particular y de los numerosos obstáculos que superar (políticos, jurídicos, económicos y humanos), la cooperación transfronteriza avanza para preservar el recurso agua y gestionar mejor la cuenca hidrográfica del Bug. El artículo presenta las principales etapas de esta cooperación, las medidas implementadas y, analizando los principales obstáculos al establecimiento de una política común, se interroga sobre la posibilidad de una gestión conjunta en la cuenca del Bug.

French abstract: Le Bug occidental est une des principales rivières frontières en Europe centrale et orientale. Elle sert non seulement de limite entre la Pologne et l'Ukraine, la Pologne et la Biélorussie, mais aussi de frontière externe à l'Union européenne. Malgré cette position particulière et les nombreux obstacles à surmonter (politique, juridique, économique et humain), la coopération transfrontalière progresse en vue de préserver la ressource en eau et de mieux gérer le bassin hydrographique du Bug. L'article présente les principales étapes de cette coopération, les moyens mis en œuvre et s'interroge sur la possibilité de gérer en commun le bassin du Bug en analysant les principaux obstacles à la mise en place d'une politique commune.

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Cartographies of Communicability and the Anthropological Archive

Civil War Executions and the Harvard Irish Study

Brigittine French

This article traces ideological constructions of communication that enable powerful actors to determine what counts as silences, lies and surpluses in efficacious narratives about violence (Briggs 2007) in order to elucidate occlusions regarding legacies of the Civil War in the Irish Free State. It does so through a precise triangulation of multiple competing and overlapping narratives from unpublished fieldnotes, interviews, published ethnographies and other first-person accounts. The inquiry highlights social memories of the Irish Civil War that have been 'assumed, distorted, misunderstood, manipulated, underestimated, but most of all, ignored' (Dolan 2003: 2). The article argues that the excesses of the anthropological archive make the recuperation of a multiplicity of collective memories possible through a linguistic anthropological perspective that enumerates the kind of erasures at play in contentious memory-making moments, highlights polyvocality in metapragmatic discourse and tracks the gaps in entextualisation processes of historical narratives about political turmoil.

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The 2014 Israel-Hamas Conflict

Repercussions on French Foreign and Domestic Policy

Eve Benhamou

The eruption of a new military conflict between Israel and Hamas in the summer of 2014 was at first followed by unequivocal French support for Israel’s right to defend itself. However, the rising death toll in Gaza and the spread of a pro-Palestinian protest movement on French soil altered this position radically, making way for an assertive French peace initiative. This article adopts a historical perspective and relies on a comprehensive analysis of French public sources to examine the impact exerted by this distant conflict over French foreign and domestic policies throughout the war and its aftermath. Ultimately, it shows that, although France’s determination to take action was in part motivated by foreign policy factors, public opinion played an important, if not equivalent, role in the country’s diplomatic activism.

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Marc Abélès

What is anthropology in France about, what is its image, its impact? Where do we come from? Where are we going? Finding answers to these questions would require a whole book. However, in a more modest way, I would like to make a number of observations related to the recent history of the discipline – history that, as we shall see, is inseparable from the general socio-political context and the place that the discipline occupies today in the French intellectual landscape.

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'0 Feet Away'

The Queer Cartography of French Gay Men's Geo-social Media Use

Dominique Pierre Batiste

Why do gay men utilise geo-social media applications such as Grindr and Scruff? Social media scholarship describes technological mediations and changes to social space and communities; however, there are theoretical gaps concerning what geo-social technology means for gay men. I suggest that gay men's ability to see other gay men, via geo-social media, reveals the queer cartography of any geographical location. This re-mapping of social space proves the public sphere less heteronormative than purported, cultivates community between gay men who may initiate face-to-face contact utilising geo-locative technology, and allows gay men to interact with one another outside of specifically gay spaces. This research is based in Toulouse, France, and adds to scholarship concerning French gay men's resistance to heteronormativity. This research also holds global significance concerning subjugated communities' uses of geo-social technology in their resistance against dominant cultures.

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Menachem Begin’s World Travels in the 1950s

A Road to Political Legitimacy

Ofira Gruweis-Kovalsky

, founder and leader of the newly formed Herut party, left Israel for a tour of Jewish communities in the United States and France with an entourage of senior party members. Begin’s decision to prioritize overseas travel at such a time marked the onset of

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Patrick Point

*Full article is in French

English abstract: The preservation of wetland ecosystem services has become a real issue for public policies. This article considers the question from the point of view of the provisioning and maintenance of a public good. It examines the production conditions and welfare savings involved when the value of ecosystem services is taken into account. The analysis shows that doing so can enable losers to be compensated and a net social surplus to be obtained. The study applies this approach to the estuarine wetland of Gironde, France, by studying the Associations Syndicales de Propriétaires (ASPs), the production units of ecosystem services. The article first describes the emergence of this type of organization, and then it uses a sample of them (20 out of 53), to analyze their investments and maintenance costs. It shows the likely presence of economies of scale and the very interesting results of ASPs in terms of low costs.

Spanish abstract: La conservación de servicios ecosistémicos derivados de las zonas húmedas (humedales), se ha convertido en un tema relevante para las políticas públicas. Este artículo considera esta cuestión desde el punto de vista del abastecimiento y del mantenimiento de un bien colectivo. El autor examina las condiciones de la producción y las ganancias en bienestar implicadas cuando el valor de los servicios ecosistémicos se toma en cuenta. En el texto se muestra que la consideración de estos valores permite compensar las pérdidas y asegurar una ganancia neta. El autor aplica este enfoque a los humedales del estuario de la Gironde, Francia, a traves del estudio de las unidades de producción de servicios ecosistémicos también conocidas como Asociaciones Sindicales de Propietarios (ASP). Este trabajo describe en primer lugar la emergencia de este tipo de organización, y después selecciona una muestra de ellos (20 de 53 ASP), para analizar sus costos de inversiones y mantenimiento. El artículo muestra la probable presencia de economías de escala y el interesante desempeño de las ASP en función de bajos costos.

French abstract: La préservation des services écosystémiques délivrés par les zones humides mobilise les politiques publiques. Nous considérons la question sous l'angle de la fourniture et de la maintenance d'un bien collectif. Nous examinons les conditions de la production et les gains en bien-être associés à la prise en compte de la valeur de ces services d'origine écosystémique. On montre notamment que cette prise en considération conduit à des situations qui permettent de compenser les perdants et d'assurer un gain net. Dans le cas des marais estuariens de la Gironde, nous nous attachons à l'étude des unités de production de ces services que sont les Associations syndicales de propriétaires (ASP). Nous rendons compte de l'émergence de cette forme d'organisation et analysons à partir d'un échantillon de 20 ASP - sur les 53 recensées dans la zone d'étude - les coûts de maintenance et d'investissement. Nous montrons la probable présence d'économies d'échelle et les intéressantes performances en termes de coût des ASP.

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Appalling Tehran

Translation of the French Serial Story and Its Effect on the Persian Serial Story

Manizheh Abdollahi and Ehya Amalsaleh

settings for these representations. This article examines an important example, the first Persian serial story published in Iran, Morteza Moshfeq-e Kazemi’s Tehran-e Makhuf ( Appalling Tehran ), and the influences on it of the translation of French serial