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Transformative cities

A response to Narotzky, Collins, and Bertho

Ida Susser and Stéphane Tonnelat

When our article was first written, the Occupy movement was in full swing and we were clearly in optimistic mode. However, as all studies of social movements have shown, from the antiapartheid struggles of South Africa to the rebellious nineteenth century in France or Britain, the road of mobilization is never straightforward. Nor did we assume that “Occupy” in the United States or even the popular rebellions of the Arab Spring would lead to a blossoming of democratic nations. We take these understandings from writers such as Eric Hobsbawm (1996), who understood the French Revolution and the British industrial revolution as complementary processes that set the stage for the imperfect and unequal nation-states of France and Britain today. In South Africa (to pick one historic moment), after the high school students who took to the streets in protest in Soweto were mowed down by South African army tanks, the streets were virtually quiescent for a decade. However, over 40 years of fascism in South Africa, the 1950s bus boycotts, the 1960s Sharpeville massacre, the famous trials of Mandela and others, the Soweto school children, and finally the union mobilization in a United Front and international sanctions led to the end of apartheid. But, as we are all now aware, these battles did not end inequality or neoliberalism.

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Durkheim’s Two Theories of Sacrifice

Ritual, Social Change and Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse

Melissa Ptacek

The article begins by examining Durkheim’s editorial role in the creation of Hubert and Mauss’s essay on sacrifice, published in his new journal, the Année sociologique, in 1899. It then brings out how, in Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, Durkheim operated both with an ‘official’ and a more or less ‘hidden’ theory of sacrifice, the first based on the approach in Hubert and Mauss’s essay, the second rooted in Durkheim’s earlier views and critical editorial comments on Hubert and Mauss’s ideas. In the process it brings out, through a detailed analysis of the work’s chapters specifically on sacrifice but also on piacular rites, tensions, ambiguities and cross-purposes in the work as a whole. These especially turn round Durkheim’s approach to violence and to the sacrificial offering or gift, and are also evident in his concern with different types of effervescence, the foundational and commemorative, as well as the ‘joyous’ and piacular. The article concludes by linking these tensions with issues at stake in Durkheim’s interest in the French Revolution and account of the role of effervescence in moments of rupture and fundamental social change.

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Beyond citizenship

Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India

Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah

of citizenship? Reminding us of the revolutionary conception of citizenship that can be traced back to the French Revolution, Etienne Balibar in fact reminds us that “the citizen can be simultaneously considered as the constitutive member of the state

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Citizenship in religious clothing?

Navayana Buddhism and Dalit emancipation in late 1990s Uttar Pradesh

Nicolas Jaoul

, equality and fraternity. Let no one however say that I have borrowed my philosophy from the French revolution. I have not. My philosophy has roots in religion and not in political science. I have derived them from the teachings of my master, the Buddha

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Yvonne Friedman and Shulamit Furstenberg-Levi

-Tedeschi 1904 ). We agree with Thomas Noonan’s insistence not to exclude from the discussion the period of pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which ranges “between the Renaissance and the French Revolution” (2007: 12), 2 as some historians have insisted on doing, based

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The Corpus of London

(Dis)covering the Victorian City

David W. Chapman

( Thornbury 1878 ). Three features of the building are of particular note. The Palace of Westminster, particularly because of its Gothic design, is a tribute to the importance of Britain’s royalty. Following the French Revolution, England had gone through a

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State and Warfare in Mexico

The Case of Ayotzinapa

Alessandro Zagato

recuperation of ideas of ‘state of exception’ ( Agamben 2005 ), their genealogy to be found in the state of siege declared during the French Revolution. A similar line is followed by Achille Mbembe (2003) in his analysis of regimes of coloniality that can

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Ritty Lukose

shaped by colonialisms, imperial formations and nationalisms around the world. Counter to a dominant, Eurocentric and Western view of women’s and feminist history that typically runs from women in the French Revolution to Mary Wollstonecraft

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Injury and Measurement

Jacob Grimm on Blood Money and Concrete Quantification

Anna Echterhölter

metric system during the French Revolution. Thus, Grimm’s theory of measurement is part of a larger argument. For the current question of qualitative measurement, this political and juridical context is important insofar as it prompts Grimm to invent a

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Commoning in New York City, Barcelona, and Paris

Notes and observations from the field

Ida Susser

March with much fanfare. Certainly, they saw themselves as building on historical events such as the Paris Commune and the alternative calendar of the French Revolution. Old hierarchies are rejected. Statuses from gender roles to bureaucratic offices are