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Transformative cities

A response to Narotzky, Collins, and Bertho

Ida Susser and Stéphane Tonnelat

When our article was first written, the Occupy movement was in full swing and we were clearly in optimistic mode. However, as all studies of social movements have shown, from the antiapartheid struggles of South Africa to the rebellious nineteenth century in France or Britain, the road of mobilization is never straightforward. Nor did we assume that “Occupy” in the United States or even the popular rebellions of the Arab Spring would lead to a blossoming of democratic nations. We take these understandings from writers such as Eric Hobsbawm (1996), who understood the French Revolution and the British industrial revolution as complementary processes that set the stage for the imperfect and unequal nation-states of France and Britain today. In South Africa (to pick one historic moment), after the high school students who took to the streets in protest in Soweto were mowed down by South African army tanks, the streets were virtually quiescent for a decade. However, over 40 years of fascism in South Africa, the 1950s bus boycotts, the 1960s Sharpeville massacre, the famous trials of Mandela and others, the Soweto school children, and finally the union mobilization in a United Front and international sanctions led to the end of apartheid. But, as we are all now aware, these battles did not end inequality or neoliberalism.

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Durkheim’s Two Theories of Sacrifice

Ritual, Social Change and Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse

Melissa Ptacek

The article begins by examining Durkheim’s editorial role in the creation of Hubert and Mauss’s essay on sacrifice, published in his new journal, the Année sociologique, in 1899. It then brings out how, in Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, Durkheim operated both with an ‘official’ and a more or less ‘hidden’ theory of sacrifice, the first based on the approach in Hubert and Mauss’s essay, the second rooted in Durkheim’s earlier views and critical editorial comments on Hubert and Mauss’s ideas. In the process it brings out, through a detailed analysis of the work’s chapters specifically on sacrifice but also on piacular rites, tensions, ambiguities and cross-purposes in the work as a whole. These especially turn round Durkheim’s approach to violence and to the sacrificial offering or gift, and are also evident in his concern with different types of effervescence, the foundational and commemorative, as well as the ‘joyous’ and piacular. The article concludes by linking these tensions with issues at stake in Durkheim’s interest in the French Revolution and account of the role of effervescence in moments of rupture and fundamental social change.

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Appalling Tehran

Translation of the French Serial Story and Its Effect on the Persian Serial Story

Manizheh Abdollahi and Ehya Amalsaleh

comparable events, as shown in Table 1 . Table 1 Similar Elements of Social Context around the Writing and Emergence of Tehran-e Makhuf and The Mysteries of Paris Tehran-e Makhuf The Mysteries of Paris Constitutional Movement: 1906 French Revolution: 1789

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The End of the European Honeymoon?

Refugees, Resentment and the Clash of Solidarities

Siobhan Kattago

French Revolution. If the American Revolution emphasised liberty, the French privileged the social question by pitying the poor from afar. Of utmost importance for Boltanski is Arendt’s emphasis on the spectator who observes the suffering of the weak. The

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Gender, Curiosity, and the Grand Tour

Late-Eighteenth-Century British Travel Writing

Anna P.H. Geurts

“authentic” (2001: 3). Other authors have remarked more specifically that women's writing, to quote Sandra Adickes's landmark study The Social Quest: The Expanded Vision of Four Women Travelers in the Era of the French Revolution, possessed more

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Nicolas Sembel

was an achievement of the French Revolution and of the spirit of the Enlightenment, embodying, in Raphaël’s expression, a ‘happy moment’ (p. 99). Moreover, ‘signs of regeneration’ are what interest us most in order, as always, to understand Durkheim

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Beyond citizenship

Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India

Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah

of citizenship? Reminding us of the revolutionary conception of citizenship that can be traced back to the French Revolution, Etienne Balibar in fact reminds us that “the citizen can be simultaneously considered as the constitutive member of the state

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Citizenship in religious clothing?

Navayana Buddhism and Dalit emancipation in late 1990s Uttar Pradesh

Nicolas Jaoul

, equality and fraternity. Let no one however say that I have borrowed my philosophy from the French revolution. I have not. My philosophy has roots in religion and not in political science. I have derived them from the teachings of my master, the Buddha

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Injury and Measurement

Jacob Grimm on Blood Money and Concrete Quantification

Anna Echterhölter

metric system during the French Revolution. Thus, Grimm’s theory of measurement is part of a larger argument. For the current question of qualitative measurement, this political and juridical context is important insofar as it prompts Grimm to invent a

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Humpty Dumpty Populism

Theopolitics and the Retreat of the Politico-theological in Venezuela (and Elsewhere)

Rafael Sánchez

from above, and such a people, by definition the majority, is always behind them. The rest, the non-people or the anti-people, no matter how sizable or vast, are simply those targeted for either subjection or elimination. While at least since the French