Gianni De Luca's 1975 adaptation of Hamlet converted 30,000 words into 48 pages of graphic novel. One of the key techniques De Luca drew upon was that of 'continuous narrative', a historically tested method of 'thinking outside the box', whereby the same character, at different stages of the action, can appear several times on a single page. De Luca mastered the technique, making limited use of panel borders, whilst avoiding reader confusion. Nonetheless the method had been used previously, not just in Little Nemo and Gasoline Alley, but as far back as Botticelli's illustrations for Dante's Divine Comedy, or even the fifteenth-century Cent nouvelles nouvelles ['The Hundred New Stories']. Subsequently De Luca's technique was to influence graphic novelists as diverse as Fred, Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, Frank Miller, Joe Sacco and Killoffer.
Thinking Outside the Box
Challenging Traditions among Rural Yezidis in Post-Soviet Armenia
Hamlet Melkumyan and Roman Hovsepyan
The Yezidis of Armenia, traditionally considered transhumant pastoralists, have been changing their economic habits over the past century. Nowadays, they are more engaged in agriculture than they were a century ago. The social and cultural backgrounds of these transformations are discussed, showing the involvement of the treatment of the Armenians and the adaptive character of the Yezidis’ economy. Presently, the Yezidis practise animal breeding and plant cultivation in parallel, using the human resources available in their family. The ongoing transformations in the economy and their engagement in agriculture are challenging the conservative lifestyle of the Yezidi community. Thus, the people who have shifted to the agrarian economy are seen as outsiders in the traditional framework and are perceived to be of low prestige.
Farmers still count for a lot in France, despite their shrinking numbers. Scarcely four per cent of the workforce now earns a living in agriculture. Yet, every politician knows that the country has a huge stake in farming— France is second only to the United States as an agricultural exporter—and that farmer unions wield clout. Farmers have cultural leverage as well. Rolling fields and rural hamlets still figure prominently in most people’s mental image of what makes France French and its social fabric whole.
Olivier Schrauwen’s Arsène Schrauwen beyond Expectations of Autobiography, Colonial History and the Graphic Novel
Benoît Crucifix and Gert Meesters
). 33 Paul Gravett, ‘De Luca and Hamlet: Thinking Outside the Box’, European Comic Art 1(1) (2008), 21–35. 34 Schrauwen, Arsène Schrauwen , 4, 256. 35 Ibid., 5, 254. 36 Ibid., 6, 255. 37 Sarah De Mul, ‘The Congo as Topos of Dystopic Transgression in
Rural Identity versus Urban Arena in Cairene Cultural Narrative and Public Discourse
Anna Tozzi Di Marco
Cairo's City of the Dead embodies the social and cultural stratification that has occurred over the course of Egyptian history. Nowadays, its syncretic culture is a mixture of urban and rural aspects - a 'rurban' culture. In an effort to escape from the poverty of their hamlets, rural migrants started to move to the capital during the last decades of Ottoman rule, ending up in the fringe zones of the city. During the second wave of migration in the twentieth century, the poorest segments illicitly occupied abandoned or rarely visited funeral courtyards. The article explores how this district has been restructured by the occupation. It analyses the meaning of the physical and cultural transformations of funerary spaces, as well as the migrants' role in the formation of the locality.
Value-Maximizing Interpretations of Withnail and I
Marwood leaves, Withnail recites the famous “man delights not me” passage from Hamlet to an audience of wolves, but deviates from the canonical text by repeating the phrase “nor woman neither” at the end: Withnail I have of late—but wherefore I know not
The Rise and Fall of Farming in Varanger
Marianne Elisabeth Lien
aldeles ] ( Bull 2014: 8 ). As Bull recounts, even if some parts of the Varanger peninsula were flat and contained grasslands, they were not inhabited by a single family. Instead, everyone lived in the coastal fishing hamlets that, according to the
The Secondary Residence in Postwar France
cities, and medium-sized towns. The number of French workers directly engaged in agriculture dropped precipitously from 7.4 million in 1946 to 2 million in 1975. 10 The agricultural exodus gutted villages and hamlets that had been steadily losing
Mobile Cultures between the Andes and the Amazon around 1900
Jaime Moreno Tejada
coloniality also dictated the arrangement of settlements. In the Upper Napo there were about a dozen pueblos , hamlets that were clearings in the forest with two or three buildings made of palm, and sometimes a church. Each pueblo had a number of native
Misplacing the Dilemmas of the European Union--In Memory of Stanley Hoffmann
Charles S. Maier
( Staatenbund ), and for others even sort of an empire, though an empire without hard power, which is really a contradiction in terms. “Do you see yonder cloud that’s almost in the shape of a camel?” Hamlet teases Polonius shortly before he kills him. “Or like a