The field of modern European Jewish history, as I hope to show, can be of great interest to those who deal with conceptual history in other contexts, just as much as the conceptual historical project may enrich the study of Jewish history. This article illuminates the transformation of the Jewish languages in Eastern Europe-Hebrew and Yiddish-from their complex place in traditional Jewish society to the modern and secular Jewish experience. It presents a few concrete examples for this process during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The article then deals with the adaptation of Central and Western European languages within the internal Jewish discourse in these parts of Europe and presents examples from Germany, France, and Hungary.
Toward a Jewish History of Concepts
Israeli poet Yonatan Ratosh was the leader of the Young Hebrews, a nationalist group active from the 1940s to the 1970s. Despite his opposition to Zionism and his aspiration to revive the ancient Hebrews’ premonotheistic civilization, Ratosh shared Zionism’s ambition to elaborate a new Israeli identity. One prominent act of this mission involved enlarging the literary corpus in Hebrew through translation. Although initially a means of income, for Ratosh translation increasingly came to be a way to express his ideological position and his self-image as an intellectual. Thus, Ratosh provides an example of how developing a national identity can coincide with appropriating foreign literature. With his regular exhortations that Hebrew readers attain knowledge of foreign cultures, Ratosh did not intend to promote cosmopolitanism. Rather, he considered these endeavors as ultimately reinforcing a “Hebrew” identity.
A Comparative Study
Haifaa Majadly and Aharon Geva-Kleinberger
grammar instruction in the Arab world (and in Israel, where its instruction competes with that of another language, Hebrew) is problematic from both a linguistic and an educational perspective. The problematic nature of Arabic instruction is reflected in
Steven E. Aschheim
George Mosse viewed history as a totality. It should come as no surprise, then, that his vision of the modern Jewish experience was in accordance with this predilection. Just as, for him, the political and the religious, the scientific and the aesthetic realms, were intertwined, deeply co-implicated, he refused to pigeon-hole and separate, or to use one of his favorite terms, “ghettoize” Jewish history and cut it off from the larger European whole. When he arrived in the late 1960s at the Hebrew University, I recall, he rather jolted the more conservative historians there not only because they were aghast at the fact that, already then, George was discussing the history of masturbation in his classes(!), but, more pertinently here, also because he challenged the prevailing ethnocentric bias that Jewish history by definition followed its own unique narrative and immanent laws.
David Allen Harvey
Classical polytheism or “paganism” presented a challenge to the Philhellenes of the Enlightenment, who found it difficult to accept that the greatest minds of antiquity had been taken in by (vide Fontenelle) “a heap of chimeras, delusions, and absurdities.” Rejecting the claim that “paganism” was a deformation of the “natural religion” of the early Hebrew patriarchs, several Enlightenment thinkers developed theories of classical polytheism, presenting it as the apotheosis of the great kings and heroes of the first ages of man, a system of allegorical symbols that conveyed timeless truths, and the effort of a prescientific mentality to understand the hidden forces of nature. Although divergent in their interpretations of “paganism,” these theories converged by separating its origins from Judeo-Christian traditions and presenting religion as an essentially human creation. Thus, Enlightenment theories of classical mythology contributed to the emergence of the more cosmopolitan and tolerant spirit that characterized the age.
Rebecca Pates and Maximilian Schochow, ed., Der “Ossi:” Mikropolitische Studien über einen symbolischen Ausländer (Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2013)
Reviewed by René Wolfsteller
Lisa Pine, Education in Nazi Germany (Oxford; New York: Berg, 2010)
Reviewed by Gregory Baldi
Stephen J. Silvia, Holding the Shop Together: German Industrial Relations in the Postwar Era (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013)
Reviewed by Volker Berghahn
Egbert Klautke, The Mind of the Nation: Völkerpsychologie in Germany, 1851-1955 (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013)
Reviewed by David Freis
Damani J. Partridge, Hypersexuality and Headscarves: Race, Sex and Citizenship in the New Germany (Bloomington: Indiana Universtiy Press, 2012)
Reviewed by Myra Marx Ferree
Moshe Zimmermann, Deutsche gegen Deutsche: Das Schicksal der Juden, 1938-1945 (Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2008; Hebrew trans., Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 2013)
Reviewed by Noga Wolff
Zara Steiner, The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933-1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)
Reviewed by Volker Prott
Stefan Berger and Norman La Porte, Friendly Enemies: Britain and the GDR, 1949-1990 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2010)
Reviewed by Meredith Heiser-Duron
Two Lexical Paths and Two Jewish Identities
Jews referred to coming-of-age ceremonies for girls in different places and historical contexts, is the history of the term bat mitzvah in Hebrew and English, the two main languages spoken by Jews in the two contemporary Jewish population centers that
biblia ot Milena Kirova” (The faces of a person's gendered partitioning in Milena Kirova's research on gender in the Hebrew Bible) by Julia Yordanova-Pancheva; “From Feminine to Masculine in Biblical Texts: The Contribution to Milena Kirova” by Roland
Contrasting Representations of Irish and Zionist Nationalism in British Political Discourse (1917–1922)
, that Hagar was the wife of Abraham, and Sarah was his concubine; and this hatred is all the more envenomed because the Hebrew holds the direct opposite to have been the case. Other and more real hatreds have been superimposed, but the stories and
Framing 30 June 1941 in Wikipedia
. The most detailed representation of 30 June is provided in the versions written in the languages of the region where the event occurred (Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian). Other versions tend to discuss certain aspects and ignore others: the Hebrew