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The Frontier and the Affrontier

French-Language Algerian Comics and Cartoons Confront the Nation

Mark McKinney

Algerian and Algerian-French cartoonists have often thematised national identity in their art. Their interest in this subject has created problems for them when they have crossed the 'affrontier', a line of demarcation whose nature and place have been determined to a considerable degree by the military regime. The analysis of some of its key dimensions - political, religious, spatial, historical and symbolic - allows us to understand how it operates. By studying striking examples of cartoons and comics, their production and consumption, we can come to an understanding of how the affrontier has functioned since 1962, when Algeria gained its independence. The year 1988, when the Algerian regime killed and tortured hundreds of young rioters, stands out as a watershed, because cartoonists then began to redefine their relationship to the military regime, the nation and the affrontier.

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Between Writing and Image

A Scriptwriter's Way of Working

Benoît Peeters

This article concerns the way in which a comics scriptwriter works collaboratively with different artists. It traces the development of a working method with François Schuiten, the artist of the Cités obscures ['Cities of the Fantastic'] series, and the extension of the series itself beyond the two-dimensional page into other formats. The constant exchange between artist and scriptwriter is stressed: each is involved in the conception of both the plotline and the visual aspects of the work. Hergé is cited as an example of an artist whose ease in conjuring images out of words and ideas from images may be termed 'graphic thinking'. It is noted, however, that the tendency of publishing houses to favour scriptwriters who predetermine the course of the album limits such inventiveness. The open-endedness that, in ideal conditions, characterises the work of the comics scriptwriter, and the thoroughgoing nature of the collaboration, is compared with the more rigid, and limited, role assigned to a film scriptwriter. A more flexible and creative process is not impossible to achieve in cinema, but it is concluded that this is rare, and that it is the comics medium that affords the greater degree of freedom and independence.

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A Bridge Across the Mediterranean

Nafissa Sid Cara and the Politics of Emancipation during the Algerian War

Elise Franklin

’s religiosity during the Algerian War for independence (1954–1962). French colonial-era modernization campaigns linked veiling with patriarchal tradition, seeking to “emancipate” Algerian women from the practice so they could become citizens of greater France. 3

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Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski, Julian Pänke, and Jochen Roose

from exercising its increased power and was rather seeking the role of a “gentle giant.” 1 This was largely the case despite some exceptions, such as the unilateral recognition of Croatian and Slovenian independence in the early 1990s, and criticism

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Whitney Walton

blend of femininity, accomplishment, and independence. Along with other recent works cited below, it offers another example of the varied ways that women in Third Republic France engaged with public debates about women and gender. Barine's contradictory

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“We Owe a Historical Debt to No One”

The Reappropriation of Photographic Images from a Museum Collection

Helen Mears

-fire agreement between the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Organization (the largest political organization representing Kachin interests) broke down, precipitating a period of devastating conflict and the displacement of some 100,000 people in the

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Introduction

Comics and Adaptation

Armelle Blin-Rolland, Guillaume Lecomte, and Marc Ripley

posits as ‘historically situated, and ideologically filtered, views of Bretonness and Brittany’. While the former promotes an ideal Brittany, using its Christian roots and links with other Celtic nations as means of independence propaganda, Bran Ruz

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Adapting Brittany

The Ker-Is Legend in Bande Dessinée

Armelle Blin-Rolland

Ker-Is occurs parallel to hopes for the resurgence, in a reconfigured geopolitical order, of an ‘ideal’ Brittany as the Caouissins understood and promoted it to young readers, with a view towards independence. This text-image sequel therefore

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‘For He Bestirred Himself to Protect the Land from the Moors’

Depicting the Medieval Reconquista in Modern Spanish Graphic Novels

Iain A. MacInnes

depiction in these novels is a problematic one. 39 Negative depictions of ‘invading’ French forces could also relate to the Spanish collective memory of the Napoleonic Wars. Increasingly understood as the Spanish War of Independence, the war against

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Nicholas Robinette

instituted a policy in favour of national independence. As post-colonial studies has assiduously documented, the purpose of this policy was to provide an ideology in support of the anti-colonial movements in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and elsewhere. 8