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Robin Rodd

of closeness” to the thought of Uruguay's independence hero José Artigas. I argue that this cross-weave of party and movement and of democratic citizenship and national heritage encourages the emergence of new figures of the citizen and new

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Francisco A. Ortega

outrage at the French invasion and proffered their devotion to Ferdinand VII. It was not, as nationalistic historiographies claim, the opportunity pro-independence patriotic forces were eagerly awaiting to launch their final attack on so-called Spanish

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Colonising ‘Free’ Will

A Critique of Political Decolonisation in Ghana

Bernard Forjwuor

reflections on the political dimensions of decolonisation assume the concept's self-evidential accomplishment. In this self-evidentiality, political independence (the transfer of colonial administrative control) is routinely signified as an anchoring point

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Geoff Kennedy

This article examines the development of popular discourses of liberty as independence emerging from the struggles between peasants and landlords over the course of the late medieval and early modern periods. This discourse, relating to the aspirations of the dependent peasantry for free status, free tenure, and free labor, articulated a conception of independence that overlapped with the emerging republican discourse of the seventeenth century. However, whereas republicanism focuses almost exclusively on the arbitrary powers of the monarchical state, the popular tradition emphasizes freedom from the arbitrary powers of landlordism. After a brief introduction to the republican conception of liberty and a discussion of the dependent peasantry in England, the work of Gerrard Winstanley is presented as an innovative synthesis of popular and republican discourses of freedom as independence from the arbitrary powers of exploitation.

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Editorial

A Thematic Issue about Central and Eastern European Societies

Zuzana Reptova Novakova and Laurent van der Maesen

of cronyism and corruption. Poland's ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party has only been in power for five years but has also mounted an assault on judicial independence and rule of law in that time. — The Guardian , 9 December 2020 Bearing this

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Justinas Dementavičius

This article deals with the question of the conceptualization of state (Lith. valstybe) in twentieth-century Lithuanian political thought and its reflections in Sąjūdis, the Lithuanian independence movement, during the years 1988-1990. It is a commonly accepted myth that Sąjūdis restored the language of Lithuania's interwar period and thus the nation-centered, nationalistic paradigm of that period. A closer look at the political discourse of the interwar period suggests that it is misleading to talk about this kind of restitution. Furthermore, considering the fact that it is important to take into account the Soviet paradigms of the state that influenced Lithuanian political discourse for fifty years, the article finds arguments for speaking about a continuation of Soviet political discourse. Thus, along with restitution, it is possible to find continuities while conceptualizing state in Sąjūdis. While analyzing the meaning and semantic fields of those concepts, it is possible to draw arguments about the real nature of the political transformation of Soviet Lithuania.

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Victoria Rowe

Through an analysis of articles and novels written by four Armenian women, which appeared in the periodical press from 1880 to 1915, this text evaluates the ways in which the trajectories of the intellectual and cultural movement known as the Zartonk (Awakening) in Armenian history facilitated women writers' emergence into the public sphere and their creation of the language and formulation of a discourse of women's rights in the Armenian socio-political context. The article provides biographical information on four women writers and examines the secular cultural institutions—such as the salon, the periodical press, the school, and the philanthropic organisation—which emerged in Constantinople and were conducive to women's participation in the public sphere. The article then problematises Armenian women writers' formulation of a specific political discourse of women's rights in the socio-political context of the Armenian millet in the Ottoman state and suggests that Armenian women writers produced a type of feminism that may have been typical of nations without independence in the context of state-sanctioned violence.

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Introduction

Experiences of Time in the Ibero-American World, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Javier Fernández-Sebastián and Fabio Wasserman

Western Enlightenment, played a decisive role in the process of independence and constitution of Brazil as a nation in the 1820s. The work clearly shows that José Bonifácio successively employs the “same” concept of political regeneration in two opposite

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Rolf Dieter Hepp

economic independence that can be only granted by employment and a regular income. Thus, this gap between existing notions and concrete precarious living conditions of greater parts of the populations must be filled in with a novel approach, attitude, and

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From “De Facto King” to Peasants’ Communes

A Struggle for Representation in the Discourse of the Polish Great Emigration, 1832–1846/48

Piotr Kuligowski

their fatherland. Czartoryski's supporters also pointed out that it would be better if there were no opposing political parties before Poland regained its independence, criticizing especially the “fixation in dividing Polish emigrants into French parties