advocate of Islamic Modernism, political activist, and scholar, immediately critically replied to this position with an essay where he pointed to Islam's potential for reform and modernization. Renan, again, rejected this argument in a follow-up essay
Grounds for a Purely Procedural Defense of Majority Rule
, Richard . 1997 . Truth, Politics and Post-Modernism: The 1997 Spinoza Lectures . Amsterdam : Van Gorcum . Schumpeter , Joseph . 1942 . Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy . London : Harper and Brothers . Schwartzberg , Melissa . 2015
Onions, Artichokes and 'The Debate' on the Nation and Modernity
Nationalism and Modernism, by Anthony D. Smith. London & New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN: 0415063418.
Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction, by Umut Özkrimili. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. ISBN: 0333777123.
Understanding Nationalism, edited by Montserrat Guibernau and John Hutchinson. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN: 0745624022.
It is hard to predict how future historians will characterise our era. Perhaps the end of the Cold War will be mentioned, although negative labels (such as also those of ‘post-modernism’ or ‘post-industrial society’) are not very conducive to understanding. ‘Globalisation’ might also be considered something typical for our epoch – even if it is mysterious how this term, which is so overloaded with diverse meanings, could ever capture the minds of the contemporaries so thoroughly. A more plausible characterisation of the changes in the status of global society which took place in the fourth quarter of the twentieth century appears to be the reference to the triumphant transition to liberal democracy. This regime form has become the ‘normal’ form of government. In 1974, scarcely 30 per cent of the existing states could qualify as democracies; today these comprise more than 60 per cent.
On 20th Century Revolutionary Socialism, from Poland to Peru and beyond
Jean-Numa Ducange, Camila Vergara, Talat Ahmed, and Christian Høgsbjerg
School Indigenous Vanguards: Education, National Liberation and the Limits of Modernism, by Ben Conisbee Baer. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019. 384 pp. The role of anti-colonial intellectuals in decolonisation movements is well
destitution enable them to respond enthusiastically to these calls. Fanon explains that the nationalist party succumbs to this failure because its members view the rural masses as bearers of deeply traditional ways of life at odds with the modernism that