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Iterative Modernism

The Design Mode of Interwar Engineering in Belgium

Greet De Block and Bruno De Meulder

This article traces the implicit spatial project of Belgian engineers during the interwar period. By analyzing infrastructure planning and its inscribed spatial ideas as well as examining the hybrid modernity advocated by engineers and politicians, this article contributes to both urban and transport history.

Unlike colleagues in countries such as Germany, Italy and the United States, Belgian engineers were not convinced that highways offered a salutary new order to a nation traumatized by the First World War. On the contrary, the Ponts et Chaussées asserted that this new limited access road would tear apart the densely populated areas and the diverse regional identities in Belgium. In their opinion, only an integration of existing and new infrastructure could harmonize the historically fragmented and urbanized territory. Tirelessly, engineers produced infrastructure plans, strategically interweaving different transport systems, which had to result in an overall transformation of the territory to facilitate modern production and export logics.

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John Lennon, Boxcar Politics: The Hobo in U.S. Culture and Literature, 1869–1956 Jennifer Hagen Forsberg

Grégoire Chamayou, A Theory of the Drone Adam Rothstein

Bridget T. Chalk, Modernism and Mobility: The Passport and Cosmopolitan Experience Alicia Rix

Ana Cardoso de Matos and Magda Pinheiro, eds., História Património e Infraestruturas do Caminho de Ferro: Visões do Passado e Perspetivas do Futuro Hugo Silveira Pereira

Nigel Thrift, Adam Tickell, Steve Woolgar, and William F. Rupp, eds., Globalization in Practice Regine Buschauer

Marlis Schweitzer, Transatlantic Broadway: The Infrastructural Politics of Global Performance Sunny Stalter-Pace

Michel Serres, Thumbelina: The Culture and Technology of Millennials Steven D. Spalding

NOVEL REVIEW Taiye Selasi, Ghana Must Go Lindsey Zanchettin

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Enda Duffy, The Speed Handbook: Velocity, Pleasure, Modernism Cotten Seiler

Christopher Mauch and Thomas Zeller (eds.), Rivers in History: Perspectives on Waterways in Europe and North America Nil Disco

Heather Goodall and Allison Cadzow, Rivers and Resilience: Aboriginal People on Sydney’s Georges River Marilyn Omerovic-Legg

Blair L.M. Kelley, Right to Ride: Streetcar Boycotts and African American Citizenship in the Era of Plessy v. Ferguson Jaclyn Kirouac-Fram

Frank Schipper, Driving Europe: Building Europe on Roads in the Twentieth Century Federico Paolini

Jeremy Packer, Mobility without Mayhem: Safety, Cars, and Citizenship Catherine Bertho Lavenir

Jeremiah B.C. Axelrod, Inventing Utopia: Dreams and Visions of the Modern Metropolis in Jazz Age Los Angeles Lawrence Culver

Vaclav Smil, Two Prime Movers of Globalization; The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines Christopher Neumaier

Christopher Neumaier, Dieselautos in Deutschland und den USA: Zum Verhältnis von Technologie, Konsum und Politik, 1949–2005 Stefan Bauernschmidt

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Carlos López Galviz

suggestion that Aalto’s designs for vases and lamps take inspiration from “Mama’s underwear” came from one of Aalto’s clients, Maire Gullichsen; see Sarah Menin, “Aalto and the Tutelary Goddess,” in Architectures Modernism and After , ed. Andrew Ballantyne

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Worldly Tastes

Mobility and the Geographical Imaginaries of Interwar Australian Magazines

Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich

the emergence of the middlebrow in Britain, Europe, and North America, Carter argues that the middlebrow in Australia did not arise in reaction to experimental literary modernism, but through imported books, and through art more emphatically than

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Michael K. Bess, David Lipset, Kudzai Matereke, Stève Bernardin, Katharine Bartsch, Harry Oosterhuis, Samuel Müller, Frank Schipper, Benjamin D’Harlingue, and Katherine Roeder

instance, the chapter on slow modernism discusses the extent to which contemporary aesthetic slowness lends weight to how certain early twentieth-century modernists already challenged the dominant association of modernism with speed and acceleration, thus

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Introduction

Print Culture, Mobility, and The Pacific, 1920–1950

Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich

., Transatlantic Print Culture, 1880– 1940: Emerging Media, Emerging Modernisms (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). 7 Georgine Clarsen, “Special Section on Settler-Colonial Mobilities,” Transfers 5, no. 3 (2015): 41–48, here 41. 8 Victoria Kuttainen

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The Spectacular Traveling Woman

Australian and Canadian Visions of Women, Modernity, and Mobility between the Wars

Sarah Galletly

. 8 Examples of these new approaches can be found in Ann Ardis and Patrick Collier, eds., Transatlantic Print Culture, 1880–1940: Emerging Media, Emerging Modernisms (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); Ann Ardis, “Towards a Theory of Periodical

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“Two Wheels Bad”?

The Status of Cycling in the Youth Hostels Association of England and Wales in the 1930s

Michael Cunningham

Twenty Years in England and Wales (London: National Council of Social Service, 1950), chap. 1. 12 Frank Trentmann, “Civilization and Its Discontents: English Neo-Romanticism and the Transformation of Anti-modernism in Twentieth-Century Western Culture

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Motorcycling in 1980s Athens

Popularization, Representational Politics, and Social Identities

Panagiotis Zestanakis

iconography of counterculture, modernism, and emancipation. 13 In contrast, in 1980s Greece some advertisers emphasized the advantages of two-wheeled travel in a city plagued by traffic jams, parking problems, and insufficient public transport. 14 This