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Kari Palonen

This article is a thought experiment. It constructs ideal types of political representation in the sense of Max Weber. Inspired by Quentin Skinner and others, the aim is to give a rhetorical turn to contemporary debates on representation. The core idea is to claim an ‘elective affinity’ (Wahlverwandschaft, as Weber says following Goethe) between forms of representation and rhetorical genres of their justification. The four ideal types of political representation are designated as plebiscitary, diplomatic, advocatory, and parliamentary, corresponding to the epideictic, negotiating, forensic, and deliberative genres of rhetoric as the respective ways to plausibly appeal to the audience. I discuss historical approximations of each type of representation and apply the combination of representation and rhetorical genres to the understanding of the European Union’s unconventional system of ‘separation of powers’. I conclude with supporting parliamentary representation, based on dissensus and debate, with complements from other types.

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Bacillophobia

Man and Microbes in Dracula, The War of the Worlds, and The Nigger of the “Narcissus”

Jens Lohfert Jørgensen

The tension between specialised and commonsensical notions of microbes in the last decades of the nineteenth century resulted in ‘ bacillophobia'; a marked anxiety amongst the public concerning the threat posed to the individual by germs. This article investigates how the conceptual impact of bacillophobia challenged the cohesion of late Victorian society. It focuses on the role played by bacteria in the negotiation between interiority and exteriority in three novels, all published in 1897: Bram Stoker's Dracula, H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds and Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the “Narcissus”. The analyses of the works emphasise the varying functions of bacteria in them – as allegory in Dracula, as plot device in The War of the Worlds, and as theme in The Nigger of the “Narcissus” – and the varying degrees of ambiguity they are represented with. Bacteriology participated in what the German sociologist Max Weber referred to as the ‘ disenchantment' of the world, which is characteristic of modernity, but the three works all testify to a re-enchanted fear of the possibility that nature might not, after all, be controllable.

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Leonidas Sotiropoulos and

permeates with something more than mere rationality. If we stand by Max Weber’s view (1946; Colliot-Thélène 1990) that we are gradually moving with modernity into a disenchanted world, void of significance and holding no special meaning for us, we could say

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“Space without People”

Austro-German Filmmaker, Bestselling Author, and Journalist Colin Ross Discovers Australia

Siegfried Mattl

engineer’s family distantly related to the famous British explorer John Ross, Colin Ross made an extraordinary career. Educated as an engineer and later studying political science and sociology with Max Weber and other recognized German scholars, he worked

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‘Sensuous Singularity’

Hamish Fulton’s Cairngorm Walk-Texts

Alan Macpherson

, specifically for an environmental ethics. Bennett’s argument for enchantment responds to what she diagnoses as the prevailing disenchantment narratives of modernity, which she traces through, among others, Max Weber, Hans Blumenberg and Simon Critchley. 8 A

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From Villainous Letch and Sinful Outcast, to “Especially Beloved of God”

Complicating the Medieval Leper through Gender and Social Status

Christina Welch and Rohan Brown

especially beloved by God, both holy and horrific. Notes 1 Carole Rawcliffe, Leprosy in Medieval England (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2006), 17. 2 Rawcliffe, Leprosy , 275. 3 Max Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1924

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From Act to Fact

The Transformation of Suicide in Western Thought

Daniel Gordon

individual’s knowledge of the divine will. 75 Of course, the most famous historical analysis of this epistemological anxiety is Max Weber’s discussion of the rise of the Protestant work ethic. It is interesting to consider that suicide, as a mode of action

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Christopher J. Allsobrook

of Max Weber, who thinks power is, simply, the strength or capacity to do something or the ability to realise one’s will (2014: 65, 67). Hamilton shares with Steven Lukes the insight that one’s will is ‘structured, organised and nested’ (2014: 68) and