This article argues that Syrian history textbooks promote the formation of Syrian national identity, although their explicit objective is to propagate Arab nationalism. Their authors' attempt to construct the history of an imagined Arab nation encompassing the whole of the Arab world in fact tells the story of different nation-states. Syrian students are therefore confronted with rival geographical spheres of national imagination. Changes in the new textbooks under Bashar al-Asad reveal increased Syrian patriotism, a will to comply with globalization, and attempts to maintain Arab nationalism.
Textbooks about Modern Arab History under Hafiz and Bashar al-Asad
Henrik Åström Elmersjö and Daniel Lindmark
History as a school subject has been a thorny issue for advocates of peace education at least since the 1880s. Efforts, including the substitution of cultural history for military history, have been made to ensure that history teaching promotes international understanding, not propagates chauvinism. The Norden Associations of Scandinavia, which were involved in textbook revision since 1919, achieved some success by altering contents, but national myths remained central to each country's historical narrative, making it difficult to give history education its desired international orientation.
A Remark on the Invisibility of Ideology in Popular Education
School history atlases are used almost exclusively as required textbooks in Central and Eastern Europe, where the model of the ethnolinguistic nation-state rules supreme. My hypothesis is that these atlases are used in this region because a graphic presentation of the past makes it possible for students to grasp the idea of the presumably "natural" or "inescapable" overlapping of historical, linguistic, and demographic borders, the striving for which produced the present-day ethnolinguistic nation-states. Conversely, school history atlases provide a framework to indoctrinate the student with the beliefs that ethnolinguistic nationalism is the sole correct kind of nationalism, and that the neighboring polities have time and again unjustly denied the "true and natural" frontiers to the student's nation-state.
U.S. History Textbook Controversies in the 1940s and 1990s
This article examines two incidents of textbook controversy in the United States in the course of the last half-century. First, it addresses history's historical relationship to the modern nation-state and nationalism. How does that relationship, and the particular way it is understood, limit the boundaries of history, particularly the contest over whether American history ought to be taught as selfcontained and exceptionalist or taught within a larger global context? Second, it addresses the presence of what could be called a historical essentialism or even historical fundamentalism in textbook controversies. The article concludes with an examination of the increasingly political character of the textbook approval and adoption process, as well as the role of publishers and professional historians in the process.
A Chronological Overview
Despite modernization of the Japanese school system after 1872, this period was marked by the war in East Asia and nationalism focusing on the emperor, whereby the imperial rescript of 1890 defined the core of national education. Following defeat in the Second World War, Japan reformed its education system in accordance with a policy geared towards peace and democracy in line with the United Nations. However, following the peace treaty of 1951 and renewed economic development during the Cold War, the conservative power bloc revised history textbooks in accordance with nationalist ideology. Many teachers, historians and trade unions resisted this tendency, and in 1982 neighboring countries in East Asia protested against the Japanese government for justifying past aggression in history textbooks. As a result, descriptions of wartime misdeeds committed by the Japanese army found their way into textbooks after 1997. Although the ethnocentric history textbook for Japanese secondary schools was published and passed government screening in 2001, there is now a trend towards bilateral or multilateral teaching materials between Japan, South Korea, and China. Two bilateral and one multilateral work have been published so far, which constitute the basis for future trials toward publishing a common textbook.
The Swedish State Approval Scheme for Textbooks and Teaching Aids from 1945 to 1983
Henrik Åström Elmersjö
Introduction The construction of national historical narratives has long been considered coincident with the rise of nationalism, and the institutionalization of historical scholarship is at the heart of this construction. 1 It has also been
spheres of social life that had previously suffered from government persecution, including the field of education. After a period of education characterized by rigid Spanish nationalism, proposals began to emerge regarding one prominent distinctive
Nazism and the Holocaust in Indian History Textbooks
Basabi Khan Banerjee and Georg Stöber
are distinguished from the aforementioned ones by their approach and style. Several books refer to Nazi ideology as “a sort of fusion of German nationalism and socialism.” 43 For example: “[The f]ollowing were the ideals of Nazism. (1) The Germans
Raymond Nkwenti Fru and Johan Wassermann
Cameroon. In our view, two such identities can be identified: an Anglophone identity and related nationalism discourse, and a broader Cameroonian identity and nationalism. We have seen how Cameroon History for Secondary Schools and Colleges promotes an
Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland
of identification that may have occurred over time. 14 Benedict Anderson’s idea of the “imagined citizen” 15 is used to examine how the Swiss envisioned the ideal national citizen. Anderson argues that nationalism is a cultural construct and defines