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Michael B. Loughlin

social, economic, and political realities. The ideas that eventually coalesced into Hervé’s national socialism originated well before the war. By 1915 and 1916 his national socialism was clearly defined. In July 1919 he created a Parti socialiste national

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"Everyday Heroines"

Nazi Visions of Motherhood in Mutterliebe (1939) and Annelie (1941)

Jo Fox

National Socialism idealized maternal bravery, selflessness, devotion, and sacrifice as essential to the health of the nation, particularly in the context of World War II. This article critically assesses the Third Reich's projection of and women's reactions to the national cult of motherhood in Gustav Ucicky's Mutterliebe (Mother Love, 1939) and Josef von Baky's Annelie (1941). Though supported by a wide range of state-sponsored socio-economic initiatives and marketing strategies, these films reveal significant tensions between the ways women imagined themselves and the lives that the regime attempted to dictate for them. Because Nazi cinema also offered female viewers the opportunity to engage in escapist fantasies of adventure and romance, making dutiful motherhood appealing was always a challenge, and grew increasingly difficult as material hardships increased over the course of the war.

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Franz A. Birgel

Characterized by Siegfried Kracauer as "the first and last German film that overtly expressed a Communist viewpoint," Kuhle Wampe (1932) is also noteworthy for being the only film on which Bertolt Brecht collaborated from beginning to end, as well as for its controversial censorship in the tumultuous political context of the late Weimar Republic. When set against the background of the 1920 Motion Picture Law and the censorship of two other high-profile films—Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin and Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front—the political history of Kuhle Wampe highlights the indecisiveness, fragility, and fears of the German Left as the Nazis prepared to take power.

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Richard Bessel

national socialism glorified violence and when in power made their violent ideologies real in campaigns of aggressive war and mass murder. Violence has long been regarded as “a fundamental ingredient,” “the actual substance” of Italian fascism. 39 As Paul

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The Will of the People?

Carl Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on a Key Question in Democratic Theory

Samuel Salzborn

actually be the more sensible path in legal theory, namely, to erase such indeterminate concepts in general from the legal system. He does so because indeterminate concepts are, as later demonstrated by the National Socialism movement, crucial for

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Bridging the Political Gaps

The Interdiscursive Qualities of Political Romanticism in the Weimar Republic

Christian E. Roques

topic. 90 Traditionally, the opposition to national socialism is presented as a fundamental element of religious socialism’s intellectual identity. 91 But as Kurt Nowak already noted in 1981, “the general attitude of the Tillich circle toward

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Niklas Olsen, Irene Herrmann, Håvard Brede Aven, and Mohinder Singh

analyzing accounts of dreams written down by persecuted Jews in Germany during the first years of National Socialism and in the extermination camps during the 1940s. Among other things, Dunkhase illuminates Koselleck's readings of concentration camp

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Theo Jung, Cristian Roiban, Gregor Feindt, Alexandra Medzibrodszky, Henna-Riikka Pennanen, and Anna Björk

emphasize the period of National Socialism both as a caesura and, in its aftermath, a major motivating force in the development of historical semantics. Quoting the ancestral lineage of conceptual history (Erich Rothacker, Werner Jaeger, Johannes Kuhn, Carl

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Socialisms in the Tsarist Borderlands

Poland and Finland in a Contrastive Comparison, 1830—1907

Wiktor Marzec and Risto Turunen

talk about national socialism. National socialism would reckon with the national character of the Finns, unlike the socialism in the labor press, which was merely imitating foreign socialism . 119 The third contestation of the concept came from

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Heritage (Erfgoed) in the Dutch Press

A History of Changing Meanings in an International Context

Hanneke Ronnes and Tamara Van Kessel

use of erfgoed in relation to Dutch examples of folklore also occurs. 81 The Greater Germany envisioned by National Socialism instrumentalized Dutch studies of folk culture throughout the period of German occupation, accentuating a racial component