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Michael B. Loughlin

social, economic, and political realities. The ideas that eventually coalesced into Hervé’s national socialism originated well before the war. By 1915 and 1916 his national socialism was clearly defined. In July 1919 he created a Parti socialiste national

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"Everyday Heroines"

Nazi Visions of Motherhood in Mutterliebe (1939) and Annelie (1941)

Jo Fox

National Socialism idealized maternal bravery, selflessness, devotion, and sacrifice as essential to the health of the nation, particularly in the context of World War II. This article critically assesses the Third Reich's projection of and women's reactions to the national cult of motherhood in Gustav Ucicky's Mutterliebe (Mother Love, 1939) and Josef von Baky's Annelie (1941). Though supported by a wide range of state-sponsored socio-economic initiatives and marketing strategies, these films reveal significant tensions between the ways women imagined themselves and the lives that the regime attempted to dictate for them. Because Nazi cinema also offered female viewers the opportunity to engage in escapist fantasies of adventure and romance, making dutiful motherhood appealing was always a challenge, and grew increasingly difficult as material hardships increased over the course of the war.

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Franz A. Birgel

Characterized by Siegfried Kracauer as "the first and last German film that overtly expressed a Communist viewpoint," Kuhle Wampe (1932) is also noteworthy for being the only film on which Bertolt Brecht collaborated from beginning to end, as well as for its controversial censorship in the tumultuous political context of the late Weimar Republic. When set against the background of the 1920 Motion Picture Law and the censorship of two other high-profile films—Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin and Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front—the political history of Kuhle Wampe highlights the indecisiveness, fragility, and fears of the German Left as the Nazis prepared to take power.

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“Space without People”

Austro-German Filmmaker, Bestselling Author, and Journalist Colin Ross Discovers Australia

Siegfried Mattl

German politics. 11 During the following years, which are characterized by his approach to National Socialism, he devoted himself more and more to the idea of so-called political hemispheres. A division of the world among regional hegemonic powers seemed

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Richard Bessel

national socialism glorified violence and when in power made their violent ideologies real in campaigns of aggressive war and mass murder. Violence has long been regarded as “a fundamental ingredient,” “the actual substance” of Italian fascism. 39 As Paul

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Neither Shadow nor Spectre

Populism as the Ideological Embodiment of the Democratic Paradox

Anthony Lawrence Borja

02289.x . Mussolini , B. 2004 . ‘ The Doctrine of Fascism ’ in A. Swallow (ed.), Readings on Fascism and National Socialism . Athens : Swallow Press , 4 – 20 . Norval , A. 2006 . ‘ Democratic Identification: A Wittgensteinian Approach