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Black October

Comics, Memory, and Cultural Representations of 17 October 1961

Claire Gorrara

. Baetens terms these motifs “etymons,” which he describes as “defining visual figurations through which a work can be read in its entirety.” 51 In the case of Octobre noir , one defining etymon is the railway bridge. Prior to the demonstration, in the

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Allan Mitchell, 1933—2016

Volker Berghahn

was rethought; fortifications, railway supply systems, and military hardware were modernized, all in order to try to overcome a condition of inferiority vis-à-vis the eastern neighbor that the French leadership thought was unacceptable. The second

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Patricia Mainardi

make his appearance, he was shown as tiny and insignificant. 44 New bridges and railway lines featured regularly in lavish multi-page spreads. Disasters too proved exceptionally popular, no doubt because they could be produced quickly with the judicious

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The Color of French Wine

Southern Wine Producers Respond to Competition from the Algerian Wine Industry in the Early Third Republic

Elizabeth Heath

reconfigured the globe, connecting distant populations and localities in unprecedented ways. The compression of space and time brought by railways and steamships enabled people, goods, and ideas to flow across the globe with new speed and ease. 8 Immigration

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Manufacturing a Multifunctional Countryside

Operational Landscapes, Urban Desire, and the French State, 1945–1976

Venus Bivar

railways, to block ports, is to interrupt the diseased flows of tourism and commerce, carriers of pathogenic germs into the Midi.” 44 Farmers no longer enjoyed a privileged status with respect to the resources of rural France; they were being forced to

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Nicolas Mariot

captain, railway station master, public accountant, financial civil servant, postal worker, inspector, tax collector   Upper middle class (private sector) Stockbroker, business agent, architect, jeweler, trader, agent, entrepreneur, art dealer, grain

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The Other House

The Secondary Residence in Postwar France

Sarah Farmer

railways after the 1820s spurred the proliferation of country houses near the capital and along the train lines reaching out from the city. This transportation network made the countryside a day-trip destination for urban workers, as well as for the

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Aaron Freundschuh, Jonah D. Levy, Patricia Lorcin, Alexis Spire, Steven Zdatny, Caroline Ford, Minayo Nasiali, George Ross, William Poulin-Deltour, and Kathryn Kleppinger

instance, and then observes that “criminal activity naturally goes hand in hand with major railway stations and their transitory population,” an echo of Chevalier's debunked notion that criminality was inherent to the marginalized and mobile elements of

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Yan Slobodkin

the massive and massively brutal construction of the Congo-Océan railway. 28 During this period, famine was, according to a missionary working in Gabon, “a chronic and incurable sickness.” 29 Famine and malnutrition led to a shortage of efficient

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The Algerian Café-Hotel

Hub of the Nationalist Underground, Paris 1926–1962

Neil MacMaster

small area on either side of the railway tracks north of the Gare du Nord and the Gare de l’Est. The hub of the small network was a café-hotel at 66 rue Stephenson, the target of a dramatic armed attack by the Mouvement national algérien (MNA) on 5