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Henry Bacon

Bioculturalist approach can be fruitfully employed to explain why fictional violence is such an integral part of both our art and entertainment. In any cultural context aggression related biological traits are controlled and shaped in order to ensure both the internal order and the security of a community. William Flesch has argued that his process is guided by the tendency to admire altruistic punishers, who without self-interest assume the task of punishing evildoers. Spectators of such actions tend to react to it emotionally, both spontaneously and via reflection, thus giving the experience both an emotional and a meta-emotional aspect. This plays an important role in relating to the ways in which resorting to violence is justified in mainstream films. This scenario has a strong emotional appeal, even if the spectator would deplore such means in real life contexts. This discrepancy emerges even more strongly in the revenge scenario, which in a fictional context can appear satisfying and empowering despite the moral qualms the spectator might have concerning the ethics of revenge. Because of the deeply ingrained cult of individuality and doubts about the efficacy of government in maintaining law and order, these narrative patterns have developed especially strongly within American popular culture. However, judging by the worldwide success of such films, their appeal is nonetheless quite universal.

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Rianna Oelofsen

restorative and retributive justice according to an Afro-communitarian moral theory. Afro-communitarian justice does not necessarily entail retributivism (at least not as retributivism is usually understood). However, Afro-communitarian justice does have

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“For a Martyr from Afar”

A Response to Laila Soliman’s No Time for Art

Caroline Rooney

could not help wondering if each and every martyr being championed would have themselves necessarily insisted on a trial of their killers. For instance, what if some of them would have been concerned less with revenge and retributive justice than with

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Corinna Mullin and Ian Patel

institutions of the state such as courthouses and ministries, the protesters challenge the state’s claimed monopoly over the symbols of truth and justice, Awfia’s demands include a more expeditious and thoroughgoing achievement of retributive justice. Playing