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The Academic Reserve

Israel's Fast Track to High-Tech Success

Gil Baram and Isaac Ben-Israel

Why is Israel world-renowned as the ‘start-up nation’ and a leading source of technological innovation? While existing scholarship focuses on the importance of skill development during Israel Defense Forces (IDF) service, we argue that the key role of the Academic Reserve has been overlooked. Established in the 1950s as part of David Ben-Gurion’s vision for a scientifically and technologically advanced defense force, the Academic Reserve is a special program in which the IDF sends selected high school graduates to earn academic degrees before they complete an extended term of military service. After finishing their service, most participants go on to contribute to Israel’s successful high-tech industry. By focusing on the role of the Academic Reserve, we provide a broader understanding of Israel’s ongoing technological success.

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You are now holding the first issue of Israel Studies Review—the official journal of the Association for Israel Studies (AIS)—in its new format, complete with new graphics, design, and content. Until now, it was known as the Israel Studies Forum, edited for ten years by Ilan Peleg, who transformed it from a newsletter for AIS members into a respected, refereed, professional journal. This year the journal is again taking a step forward. It reflects the academic development of the field, newly available technology (color, even!), and the progress and coming of age of the journal itself.

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Jo-Ann Mort and Gary Brenner, Our Hearts Invented a Place: Can the Kibbutzim Survive in Today’s Israel? Review by James Armstrong

Rory Miller, Ireland and the Palestine Question 1948–2004 Review by Ian Black

Raz Yosef, Beyond Flesh: Queer Masculinities and Nationalism in Israeli Cinema Danny Kaplan, Brothers and Others in Arms: The Making of Love and War in Israeli Combat Units Reviews by Aeyal Gross

Allon Gal, ed., The Legal and Zionist Tradition of Louis D. Brandeis Review by Arnon Gutfeld

Ella Shohat, Zichronot Asurim [Forbidden Reminiscences: A Collection of Essays] Review by Shoshana Madmoni-Gerber

Nahum Karlinsky, California Dreaming: Ideology, Society and Technology in the Citrus Industry of Palestine, 1890–1939 Review by Zvi Raanan

Michael Berkowitz, ed., Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond Review by Erica Simmons

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Anat First and Eli Avraham

American values, symbols, landscapes, and lifestyles have been widely used in Israeli advertisements to market a vast array of consumer goods. An analysis of advertisements that appeared in Israeli newspapers during the 1990s reveals that American symbols were invoked to promote products produced in the United States, Israel, or even a third country. By examining the relationship between advertising and culture, along with the changes that have occurred in Israeli society during this period, this analysis focuses on two interlocking spheres: capitalist-economic (labor and production, consumption, and technology) and cultural (cultural heroes and symbols, language, and lifestyle). Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, it is the authors' goal to show how social values have changed over time, losing their Israeliness and taking on an American flavor. This article seeks to present the manifestation of the American image in Israeli advertisements and thereby fuel a discussion on the Americanization of Israeli society.

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Sylvie and Reina Rutlinger-Reiner

In post-industrial societies, the individualization of the family process, which puts the individual at the center of the family, is changing this institution beyond recognition. As part of this evolution, individuals and their human rights, together with their obligations and responsibilities, become the basis for the family institution and for its legitimization. Consequently, family frameworks, whose roles and legitimate boundaries were established in the past in ways that served the interests of society and ensured its biological and cultural continuity, are becoming frameworks in which the individual is at the center. At the same time, thanks to ethical and political changes and the achievements of medical technology, for the first time in human history an individual can separate marriage, fertility, parenthood, and the establishment of a household to the extent that the socio-cultural climate allows.

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Menachem Keren-Kratz

patterns associated with those common in the modern Western world. Haredi society is traditionalistic, and any encounter with modern society, technology, or lifestyle is viewed with apprehension and concern regarding its possible consequences. This attitude

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The Puzzle of The University on Air

A Story of Media and Academia in Israel, 1977–2013

Hagai Boas and Ayelet Baram-Tsabari

the program’s history and the processes that have altered the setting for popular science in Israel. The National Context: Science Communication in Israel The Israeli public takes great pride in Israeli science, technology, and innovation, convinced of

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Yoram Peri and Paul L. Scham

nature. Lastly, we present Yuval Gozansky’s analysis of changes in Israeli children’s television programming over 50 years. As the technology changed, the purposes of the producers shifted fundamentally, along with the portraits of childhood and

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Yoram Peri and Paul L. Scham

review of a book on economics. David Rosenberg’s Israel’s Technology Economy: Origins and Impact examines the positives as well as the negatives in Israel’s much-ballyhooed high-tech sector. The last—but by no means least—review is on another less

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Menachem Klein

existing Muslim shrines. Each of these institutions disseminates the hegemonic narrative not only in museum exhibitions and publications, but also virtually, through well-developed and engaging websites. Modern technology enables them to overcome the