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Ferdinand and the Sultan

The Metaphor of the Turk and the Crisis of the Spanish Monarchy in the Early Nineteenth Century

Juan Luis Simal and Darina Martykánová

King Ferdinand VII of Spain was often compared to the Ottoman sultan. It was a rhetorical operation that continued a tradition in Western Christendom by which Christian rulers were compared to oriental despots not because they were considered to be equal to them, but to show how far astray from the ideal of good government they were. This article examines the multiple dimensions of this comparison. To what extent was it a reaffirmation of the construction of the Turk as a radical other? Or were there new essential elements, and therefore the metaphor of the Turk can also be interpreted within a new universalistic discourse that opposed tyrants to oppressed peoples across cultural and religious barriers? Our examination leads to a reflection on the transnational character of the discursive frameworks in which the metaphor of the Turk was built and rebuilt, on its circulation and limits, and on its specific uses.

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The Headscarf

A Political Symbol in Comparative and Historical Perspective

Elisa Wiygul

The headscarf has become a cultural flashpoint, a freighted symbol of many of the central social, cultural, political, and religious tensions of this first decade of the twenty-first century. When I first began to research the French controversy surrounding the Muslim headscarf in 2001, it was little known in the United States. Since then, the issue has attained global prominence. In late 2003, the Stasi Commission, which Prime Minister Jacques Chirac had appointed several months earlier, recommended a ban on wearing the Muslim headscarf in public primary and secondary schools.1 The legislature promptly passed such a ban, which became law on 15 March 2004.2 Since then, Germany, Turkey, and Britain, among other countries, have wrestled with their own headscarf controversies. The debate reached international proportions when the European Court of Human Rights upheld Turkey’s ban on the headscarf in universities, in the 2005 case of Sahin v. Turkey.

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Ottoman Conceptual History

Challenges and Prospects

Alp Eren Topal and Einar Wigen

Turkish or in a European language, we do so in a way that can never correspond exactly to the meaning made in the original context. Since meaning changes over time, this is of course never possible in any language, but with the conceptual fracture between

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Tuğçe Kayaal

the province with the same name, in central Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Hüsnü Efendi was the first student who decided to take action against the sexually abusive behaviors of Headmaster Münir Bey, who was in charge of administering both the school

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Eugenia Gay, Philipp Nielsen, Emanuel Richter, and Gregor Feindt

, Canada could have been an interesting case study; Japan, as a country that was not colonized but instead adapted a mixture of the German and British systems; or Turkey, a country sometimes included in and sometimes excluded from European contexts and that

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Annabel Brett, Fabian Steininger, Tobias Adler-Bartels, Juan Pablo Scarfi, and Jan Surman

–148, here 139. 4 Anna Becker, Gendering the Renaissance Commonwealth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019). Translation in International Relations and Ottoman-Turkish History Einar Wigen, State of Translation: Turkey in Interlingual Relations

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David Owen

within this statist picture have found themselves abandoned or neglected. National border closures in 57 states make no exception for refugees seeking asylum. The 2,000 Syrian refugees who crossed the border from Turkey to Syria to celebrate the holy

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Mark S. Micale

.2 million turkeys, and 2.4 million rabbits. By far the largest slaughter each year involves chickens, with a staggering 9,075,261,000 in 2008. These are the figures of animals killed just to feed meat-eating Americans in one year. 12 Reliable global

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Carl Strikwerda

officers took over command of the city’s defenses on behalf of the Ottoman Turks. As Sean McMeekin writes, “Already on high alert lest the ungrateful Bulgarians usurp Turkish authority in Constantinople, Russia was now faced with the frightening prospect

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Roberto Farneti

reasons” ( Raz 1999: 67 ). 5 In “deeply divided societies” multiple lines of potential conflict can possibly neutralize conflict. Israeli and Turkish politics offer cases in which religious partisans’ political positions differ from their party