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Leaving the Homeland

Kurdish Diasporic Experience in Binghamton

Aynur de Rouen

Through interviews with Iraqi Kurdish refugees who are currently living in and around Binghamton, New York, this study aims to evaluate details about the impact of the diaspora on these refugees and its effects on the development of Kurdish identity. Specifically, it focuses on the narratives of refugees who have faced physical pressure and violence, cultural assimilation and ethnic cleansing in their homeland, which has left an indelible mark on their memories and identities. Lastly, these notes from the field articulate how collective memory gives voice to the shared Kurdish past, refugees’ experiences in diaspora and the importance of spreading memories of the older generations, particularly to second-generation refugees, in shaping identities and reconstructing place in the United States.

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Felipe Adrián Vázquez Gálvez and Liliana Rivera-Lozano

*Full article in Spanish

English abstract: NAAEC acts as an independent platform for the international cooperation between the United States, Mexico and Canada over a wide range of environmental protocols. The CEC was formed as a practical and valuable tool to achieve NAAEC goals. Therefore, the CEC supervises the development of environmental policies and their accurate implementation among the three nations. In addition, the CEC promotes the participation of private citizens in collaboration with their governments to develop diverse strategies for conservation, protection, and improvement of our shared environment. Whether or not it is necessary to maintain regular operations of NAEEC is a subject currently evaluated during the present renegotiations of NAFTA, which provides new opportunities in view of the contemporary political, economic and environmental scene.

Spanish abstract: El ACAAN actúa como una plataforma independiente de cooperación internacional entre Estados Unidos, México y Canadá para el desarrollo de protocolos de protección del medio ambiente. La CCA se concibe como una práctica herramienta para la instrumentación de las metas trazadas por el ACAAN. En consecuencia, la CCA se encarga de gestionar, supervisar e implementar diversas estrategias de conservación, protección, y mejoramiento del medio ambiente por medio de la colaboración entre la sociedad civil y el sector gubernamental. En la actualidad, el debate en torno a si la reciente revisión y ratificación del TLCAN requerirá mantener el existente funcionamiento del ACAAN permite el planteamiento de nuevas áreas de oportunidad en vista del actual contexto político, económico y ambiental global.

French abstract: L’ANACDE sert de plate-forme indépendante pour la coopération internationale entre les États-Unis, le Mexique et le Canada sur un large éventail de protocoles environnementaux. La CCE a été créée comme outil pratique et utile pour atteindre les objectifs de l’ANACDE. Par conséquent, la CCE supervise l’élaboration des politiques environnementales et leur mise en oeuvre précise parmi les trois pays. En outre, la CCE encourage la participation des citoyens à l’élaboration de stratégies diverses en faveur de la conservation, la protection et l’amélioration de notre environnement commun. La question de savoir s’il est nécessaire ou non de maintenir les opérations régulières de l’ANACDE est actuellement débattue lors des renégociations de l’ALENA, qui ouvre de nouvelles perspectives sur les scènes politique, économique et environnementale contemporaines.

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Gendering the Cold War in the Region

An Email Conversation between Malgorzata (Gosia) Fidelis, Renata Jambrešić Kirin, Jill Massino, and Libora Oates-Indruchova

Malgorzata Fidelis, Renata Jambrešic´ Kirin, Jill Massino, and Libora Oates-Indruchova

Although historians have established that gender was a crucial element of the Cold War competition between the United States of America and the Soviet Union, there is not much historical literature yet exploring that aspect of the Cold War. Even less literature specifically addresses the role of gender and/in the Cold War in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE), the region that Aspasia covers. Since Aspasia’s first issue (2007), each volume has had a Forum, though in different formats. This Forum, based on an email exchange conducted over several months between four regional experts, addresses questions about gender and/in the history and historiography of the Cold War in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Of these countries, the first three were Soviet dominated, but Yugoslavia, after the Tito–Stalin split in 1948, developed its own branch of state socialism.

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Changing Places, Changing People

Critical Heritages of Migration and Belonging

Susannah Eckersley

relationships, family words and nostalgic associations. Mellor’s artistic work grapples with these contradictions, and in her article she places this against an examination of being part of German Clubs in the United States of America, while delving into the

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It Was Not Meant to Be This Way

An Unfortunate Case of Anglo-Saxon Parochialism?

Tom Frost

the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States of America. Due to the vicissitudes of the Electoral College, Donald Trump won the electoral vote but lost the popular vote by over 2.5 million votes. No previous candidate has been elected

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Andrei V. Grinëv

obligatory to build and purchase ships for itself that will last as long as possible. Experience has shown that a ship purchased in Germany, that is, in Hamburg or Bremen, and from the United States of America, of oak or other such strong wood, serves 20 or