This article maps key epistemological and ontological terrains associated with biotechnology. Beginning with the epistemological, a comparison is made between the scientific representations of today, particularly as found in the genomic sciences, and the scientific representations of the past. In doing this, we find these representations have changed over the centuries, which has been of significant consequence in terms of giving shape to today's global political economy. In the following section, the sociopolitical effects of biotechnology are discussed, particularly in terms of how the aforementioned representations give shape to global path dependencies. By examining the epistemological and ontological assumptions that give shape to the global distribution of informational and biological resources, this article seeks to add to our understanding of today's bioeconomy and the geographies of control it helps to create.
Michael S. Carolan
A Literature Review
variety of fields pertaining to medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology, etcetera. For instance, Ge Zhang (2012) provides an overview of what biomimicry can contribute to biomedical research in areas such as regenerative medicine or in tissue engineering
Public Debates about Technological Modifi cation of Food
Jennifer B. Rogers-Brown, Christine Shearer, and Barbara Herr Harthorn
Technological modifications of food are being marketed as novel products that will enhance consumer choice and nutritional value. A recent manifestation is nanotechnology, entering the global food chain through food production, pesticides, vitamins, and food packaging. This article presents a detailed literature review on risk and benefit perceptions of technological developments for food and agriculture, including our own research from US deliberative workshops on nanotechnologies. The article suggests that many of the public concerns discussed in the literature on biotechnology in food are being raised in qualitative and quantitative studies on nanotechnologies for food: although nanotechnologies are generally perceived to be beneficial, many people express particular uneasiness about nanotechnological modifications of food. The article argues that these concerns represent material examples of unresolved social issues involving technologies and the food industry, including questions about the benefits of nanotechnology for food, and the heightened values attached to food as a cultural domain.
This paper explores the rights-based cosmopolitanism of French anti-GM activists and their challenge to the neoliberal cosmopolitanism of the World Trade Organization and multinational corporations. Activists argue that genetic modification, patents, and WTO-brokered free trade agreements are the means by which multinationals deny people fundamental rights and seek to dominate global agriculture. Through forms of protest, which include cutting down field trials of genetically modified crops, activists resist this agenda of domination and champion the rights of farmers and nations to opt out of the global agricultural model promoted by biotechnology companies. In so doing, they defend the local. This defense, however, is based on a cosmopolitan discourse of fundamental rights and the common good. I argue that activists' cosmopolitan perspective does not transcend the local but is intimately related to a particular understanding of it.
Sanne van der Hout and Martin Drenthen
provide a more complete understanding of the global cycles that keep the biosphere in balance, offer clues to the basis for many diseases, lead to development of new antimicrobial therapies and present solutions to environmental and biotechnological
Human-Centrism, Posthumanism, and AI
Nandita Biswas Mellamphy
-Centered Artificial Intelligence. “Home.” https://hai.stanford.edu/ (accessed 26 December 2020). 2 “Emerging technologies have been framed in varied ways in different political cultures; biotechnologies, for example, have been developed, responded to, and
Hendrik Paasche, Katja Paasche, and Peter Dietrich
. Hood , and Julian D. Watts . 2000 . “ Equipping Scientists for the New Biology .” Nature Biotechnology 18 : 359 . 10.1038/74325 Arora , Jasbir Singh . 2016 . Introduction to Optimum Design . London : Academic Press . Beven , Keith . 2016
The Social Worlds of Wheat
, including certain actors (namely biotechnology laboratories, molecular biologists, and multinational seed companies) while marginalizing others (such as small-scale farmers and local agronomists) ( Bonneuil et al. 2014 ). Development of genetically modified
A Framework for Ethnographic Research on the Perceptions of Climate Change
Sophie Elixhauser, Stefan Böschen, and Katrin Vogel
agriculture, and a number of handicraft businesses and companies engaging in biotechnology, the village offers good job opportunities and attracts commuters from the region. At the same time, a considerable number of mostly highly qualified inhabitants commute
Franziska von Verschuer
” (2010: 413) in the wake of seminal developments in biotechnology, conservation biology, and environmental politics in the 1980s. By differentiating the diffuse category of nature into a multiplicity of biological sources addressed and accessed as