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Belonging to Spontaneous Order

Hayek, Pluralism, Democracy

Stephanie Erev

because of the uncertainty such democratic authority would introduce into risk/reward calculations; second, it would interfere with the state's ability to run itself like an enterprise. So the centralized authority of the state is not the only authority to

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Vittorio Bufacchi

harm, nor by improbable mathematical calculations, but by those being harmed. Going back to the example of cuts in health-care provision in Ireland, neither option (A) nor option (B) are acceptable, but it could be that even those who may be at risk of

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Who Governs in Deep Crises?

The Case of Germany

Wolfgang Merkel

France, Italy, Spain, and New York were to be avoided in Germany. There is also a third factor. German epidemiologists’ model-based calculations suggested for worse-case or even normal-case scenarios a bleak picture. The talk was not of thousands, but

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Postcolonial Finance

The Political History of ‘Risk-Versus-Reward’ Investment in Emerging Markets

Cecilia Schultz

, how should we expect any good oeconomy in his household?’ ( Defoe 1890 [1729]: 244 ). Defoe argues that meticulous bookkeeping is the way to self-mastery and good government. The combination of calculation, anticipation and planning in bookkeeping

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Teppo Eskelinen

calculation. In contemporary sociological theory, the concept of risk has been typically used in a more general sense, for instance in the theory of the ‘risk society’ ( Adam et al. 2000 ; Beck 1992 ). Such theories often define risk as something

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Leslie Paul Thiele and Marshall Young

. If the goal is to be wise in time, then developing the faculty of practical judgment wholly in the crucible of worldly experience is problematic. But if abstract principle cannot be translated into workable practice through calculation and cogitation

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’Tis but a Habit in an Unconsolidated Democracy

Habitual Voting, Political Alienation and Spectatorship

Anthony Lawrence A. Borja

. habit is produced, not through mere repetition but out of the alignment of an initial calculation and eventual behaviour with a consistent context – an alignment that will ease future calculations and facilitate the repetition of a behaviour. I note that

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The Economics of Decolonisation

Institutions, Education and Elite Formation

Nicola Viegi

Mitchell (1998) . Table 2 Number of Children in primary school as % of the total population (Source: Author’s calculations on Mitchell 1998 data)   1930 1950 Ghana 0.01892 0.07455 Sierra Leone 0.00848 0

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Central and Eastern Europe

The Rise of Autocracy and Democratic Resilience

Petra Guasti

.02 8010000 * 2530.58 96482 Source: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus , calculations by the author, all data as of As of August 5, 2020; * as of July 26, 2020 The fatality rate can be explained by state capacity to manage the crisis

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American Extraterritorial Legislation

The Data Gathering behind the Sanctions

Ali Laïdi

over homo juris. In international business, the law is reduced to variable data that depends on a simple economic calculation: if I cheat and get caught, how much does my company have to pay to preserve its access to markets? If the sum does not