commodity ‘has a two-fold aspect – use-value and exchange-value ’. 1 Aristotle, who was concerned with the political organization of the Republic also made this distinction, although his concern was not primarily with what we might term the ‘capital’ to
Race, Global Capital, and The Making of the English Working Class
W. E. B. Du Bois noted that the nineteenth-century US slave plantation corresponded with the factory in its worst conceivable form. This article expands upon Du Bois's insight to consider the emergence of the English working class in correspondence with American settler slavery and colonial projects within the British Empire. From above, elites theorized about the exploitation of labor as a world historical project to compare the enslaved, the colonized, and the English worker against one another. From below, proletarian intellectuals imagined the freedom of English laborers through the condition of the enslaved in the American South and Jamaica and the colonized in South Asia. By placing these histories from above and below together, this article argues that it is impossible to conceive of the English working class making itself and being made at remove from the enslaving and colonizing projects of global capital.
The resurgence of interest in the determinants of economic growth through the vehicle of endogenous growth theory has brought with it new understanding of what underlies long term economic prosperity. In particular, the role of human capital as an important driver of technological change, and hence development, has emerged as a key factor.
Urban Design for Tourism
One of the larger changes of the last thirty years has been the emergence within urban planning and design of strong consideration for tourism, tourist sites, tourist decision making, and designer ideas about tourist desire. In a 1963 keynote address to a conference at Harvard, James Rouse declared Disneyland to be ‘the greatest piece of urban design in the United States today’. (Marling 1997: 170) Architecture and planning fields now incorporate theme park design elements into urban redevelopment projects throughout the United States. Security, cleanliness, aesthetic and social order and historic referentiality as found at Disney’s ‘Mainstreet USA’ are now ‘designed into’ urban infill projects and new towns in urban corridors.
Market English, Biopower, and the World Bank
J. Paul Narkunas
In 1997, the World Bank Group1 published in English one of its many country studies, entitled Vietnam: Education Financing. Its goal was to measure ‘what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for Vietnam to complete the transition successfully from a planned to a market economy’(World Bank 1997: xiii). Skills, knowledge, and attitude designate the successfully ‘educated’ Vietnamese national subjects for the bank. The educational ‘system’ performs, therefore, a disciplinary function by using the technologies of the nation state to cultivate productive humans—measured by technical expertise and computer and business skills—for transnational companies who do business in the region.
Images of London in Dissolution in the Novels of William Le Queux
Le Queux's novels of Britain in peril, and a capital city in decline. While much has been written about the significance of Le Queux as an architect of the spy novel and thriller writing, and his broader relationship to the Harmsworth press, little
Simulation and Dissimulation in Isabella Whitney’s ‘Wyll and Testament’
provoke the reader the most. This abject city that exists within the city of London alerts the reader to the fact that beneath its orderly surface the early modern capital was a highly contested space as well as a site of class conflict. Indeed, in its
Nicholas F. Russell
arrival at the capital, and that they would be allowed to trade freely at Canton (which also ultimately proved misleading) ( Diario 5 June 1767: i through 6 June 1767: i; Astley 1968: 405 ). The size of the expedition was quite large and its proceeding
'Dirty Realism' in Contemporary American and Irish Fiction
Although not strictly speaking a ‘dirty realist’ novel, American Pastoral is clearly indebted to the genre. Concerned with a generation which, despite its money, is only one removed from the city’s Old Prince Street ghetto – Seymour Levov’s father left school at fourteen to work in a tannery to support a family of nine – the 1960s proves ‘dirtier’ than the past. Prosperous Newark becomes ‘the car-theft capital of the world’ and the Levov’s neighbourhood, reminiscent of ‘dirty realist’ writing, becomes a seedy district where, apart from a liquor store, a pizza stand and a church, everything is ruined and boarded up. Initially, as in ‘dirty realist’ writing, fantasies about family and community hide ‘the way things actually work’.1 But a significant element of American Pastoral is its implicit argument in favour of ‘dirty realism’. If we accept the novel’s gist, the need for Seymour to be released from myth into the complexity and messiness of history, then ‘dirty realism’, as beyond pastoral and outside a linear, progressive model of history, is relocated as a mode of writing which buys into postmodern critiques of monolithic narratives and fixed subject-positions.
The Intellectuals, the Masses and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
Anita Loos's tribute to Aldous Huxley appeared in a memorial volume compiled by Julian Huxley in 1966. Among the contributors were Lord David Cecil, Stephen Spender, T.S. Eliot, Osbert Sitwell, Leonard Woolf and Isaiah Berlin. Loos was on eof Aldous Huxley's most famous friends: she was a successful and well connected screenwriter, and the astonishing sales of her novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1925) made her a millionaire and a celebrity. The novel also significantly increased her cultural capital, since it was admired by eminent writers and thinkers including James Joyce, Edith Wharton, H.L. Mencken, William Faulkner, Sherwood Anderson, William Empson, George Santayana and Rose Macaulay. For many years, Loos was one of the best known women in the United States, and 1966 was the year she published her autobiographical volume A Girl Like I, which received enthusiastic reviews and led to retrospectives of her films. And yet, if Anita Loos today stands out from the list of Julian Huxley's contributors, it is because the other names are still so familiar, while hers has become obscure.